Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia

Volume 101 Issued December 2004 ISSN #0071-0733

Entomological © 2004 Society of British Columbia

COVER: Pelegrina montana (Araneae: Salticidae)

Male of Pelegrina montana (Emerton, 1981), a salticid spider common throughout Can- ada and extending south into the northernmost and montane United States. Known from deciduous bushes and trees associated with streams, rivers and bogs.

Illustration on coquille board by pen, dark pencil and white paint.

Original art by Wayne Madison, courtesy of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Har- vard University. Copyright © President and Fellows of Harvard University.

The Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia is published annually in December by the Society

Copyright© 2004 by the Entomological Society of British Columbia

Designed and typeset by Ward Strong and Jen Perry. Printed by Reprographics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.

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Volume 100, December 2003

Please note the following corrections to Volume 100 of the Journal of the Entomological Society of British


Maclauchlan, L. E., L. Harder, J. H. Borden and J. E. Brooks. Impact of the western balsam _ bark beetle, Dryocoetes confusus Swain (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), at the Sicamous Creek research site, and the potential for semiochemical based management in alternative silvicultural systems. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 100:27-41.

i Page 7.time 9:

2. Page 39, line 42:

Leroy Harder address should read “206 330 East Street, North Vancouver, B.C. V7L 1B5”.

Acknowledgements, change final sentence to read “This study was the subject of Leroy Harder’s M.P.M_ thesis (Harder 1998) funded in part by Forest Renewal B.C. and the B.C. Forest Service.”


Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia

Volume 101 Issued December 2004 ISSN #0071-0733

Directors of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 2004-2005 ....0......cccceccceecceceseceseeeseeeeeeeeseecsseeseeeeeeeesseeesseens 2

Gary J.R. Judd and Mark G.T. Gardiner. Simultaneous disruption of pheromone communication and mating in Cydia pomonella, Choristoneura rosaceana and Pandemis limitata Lepidoptera:Tortricidae) using Isomate-CM/LR ATIGAN DIS OPCW AES scan sree use ssases vasanaconne cher ceeceo mua see ten nd sual aud aannh moe ads nis eaten pdemnegraasheate aut cneaateeavecacess Goreneaines 3-14

Heather L. McBrien and Gary J.R. Judd. Emergence of overwintered larvae of eye-spotted bud moth, Spi/onota ocellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in relation to temperature and apple tree phenology at Summerland, British Columbia..... eee drew one Ng a pate ph si Puta a nical ee aloe sist acs w seel nue Sec crete SAR ac pea ESE pean eg eee eee Dene em me mane Pee le 15-28

Gary J.R. Judd, Mark G.T. Gardiner and Howard M.A. Thistlewood. Seasonal variation in recapture of mass-reared sterile codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): implications for control by sterile insect

COGMNIGS TTS COMM DL oe: Senet dana sco vauadete t conchae: seoactusadnchsesntuceevateeececodtesacdsueedne saceuesna tun Ae peseeaenteeeite cea. 29-44 A.L. Knight and D.M. Light. Use of Ethyl and Propy] (£,Z)-2,4-decadienoates in Codling Moth Management: Improved Monitoring AnBartlett Pear with Hagin DOSE EAMES. scgcxesensestezieettig decnccusstroacsnncetenthcar aatccehtetees Geeeetgranaueneedceannes 45-52 A.L. Knight and D.M. Light. Use of Ethyl (£,Z)-2,4-decadienoate in Codling Moth Management: Stimulation of Ovi- [0,051 16) 1 Saree nee ne te Re Dee We Rey ve ee era NOmrar eer raat ete eeert Te erro Rer ena eid, ore Serr emer tah PORN Drea ar rere en Teenie ry ese er 53-60 A.L. Knight and D.M. Light. Use of Ethyl (£,Z)-2,4-decadienoate in Codling Moth Management: Kairomone Species NDE CLITCUEY ¥ natcrSccna ences ncuomeniag tea tacne ter atirst eas snatanetyag een etnngabiadna votes scars geansmuadenensp eat daha ad Vind aetelae ae a eaet hreae Dr emuius 61-68 A.L. Knight. Managing Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with an Internal Grid of Either Aerosol Puffers or Dispenser Clusters Plus Border Applications of Individual Dispensers .....................:ccseeeeeeceeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeaes 69-78 A.L. Knight and T.E. Larsen. Improved Deposition and Performance of a Microencapsulated Sex Pheromone Formula- tion for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a Low Volume Application ...........0.ccccecceeeeeeeteeeteeeenees 79-86 J.E. Cossentine and L.B.M. Jensen. Persistence of a commercial codling moth granulovirus product on apple fruit and 128) f°. ere nee SESE NAT TS te mnt ene tr Oey Mem Ner ri e eanemies tire en eT Ten Tre Trew SbPael Ser bromine ever Weer weee rit ae Py 11 tacts mee tn ior earl 87-92 R.F. Smith, J.E. Cossentine, S.M. Rigby and C.S. Sheffield. Species of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in organic BP Ple OLCHALAS OFS MIEISIy CO el goes sey cca anyon coon tact a veremers tesa cones vaciysassesssapeeeeiaeleisscevier eins elmer en tiene aes 93-100 David R. Horton. Phenology of emergence from artificial overwintering shelters by some predatory arthropods common liapeat orchards Of Une P acitie IN OLE CSU oi ccc tac ts sonnets csstcsce-crasieaedeess ohceueeeanrniaouensan Aoasazes tenaereases tea emies Meee 101-108 Kevin J. Dodds and Darrell W. Ross. Douglas-fir beetle lipid levels in relation to tree physical characteristics .......... Betcha Desa t hen te sh tslesatag Cade caepp cman Mesa ah chad eV tea the SeaqPe dello cada wnt chet chavareta aad nesea plese shabten ic eee tied eae De Rae 109-116 John H. Borden, Deepa S. Pureswaran and Lisa M. Poirier. Evaluation of two repellent semiochemicals for disruption of attack by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) ................ 117-124 G.G.E. Scudder. Heteroptera (Hemiptera: Prosorrhyncha) New to Canada. Part 2 ........0..cccccccccccsseeseeeeeesseeteeeeeens 125-130 John P. Simaika and Robert A. Cannings. Lestes disjunctus Selys and L. forcipatus Rambur (Odonata: Lestidae): Some SSO LUUCTCOTAS EQ teal Cle HCl TA ENB sak ken cng caesar cada anes ocose- a suo ones tour dune eas 131-140 SCIENTIFIC NOTES

R.S. Vernon. A ground-based pheromone trap for monitoring Agriotes lineatus and A. obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) stil ccausisdeadisssilacalen Cavieuaes cosine Giz eanc see teense ta grtvg atone Wits <taucaaesc aot iepelst tua nid ass cust guna tae AnAesene aeupedos Whvaasgotte iota maw eae 141-142

Sarah L. Bates and John H. Borden. Parasitoids of Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera: Coreidae) in British CORI D I etiegeene sae te es mes tect ar ear Tame ae Ea a pt epee oo eae soci used peared Sas anata sae 143-144

Darrell W. Ross, Gary E. Daterman and A. Steven Munson. Evaluation of the antiaggregation pheromone, 3- methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH), to protect live spruce from spruce beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infestation in SOUS I) Cal eee ea tec eere cee eaciescalh ins ge a Maa Ss a Loan ee A ate a casa Saget mei pesataee nce pntae anc ina esate maar 145-146

R.D. Kenner and K.M. Needham. New waterboatmen records for Western Canada (Hemiptera: Corixidae)...... 147-148

Christopher J. Borkent and Robert A. Cannings. Polistes dominulus (Christ) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae) in British Columbia: first collection records of an invasive European paper wasp in Canada...............c:eeeees 149-150

IN@ ECT TO COIN TREE UT ORG reac ooo e sa pcos ieee lose yeaa dpaqiles visa vasusirnsun eacaduencs epaeedeeniasne tiers cacBaneee Inside Back Cover




President: Dave Raworth AAFC-PARC Agassiz

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Simultaneous disruption of pheromone communication

and mating in Cydia pomonella, Choristoneura rosaceana

and Pandemis limitata Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using Isomate-CM/LR in apple orchards



Simultaneous disruption of pheromone communication and mating of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L), and four leafroller (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae) species, Choristo- neura rosaceana (Harris), Pandemis limitata (Robinson), Archips rosanus (L.) and Ar- chips argyrospilus (Walker ) using an incomplete mixture of their individual pheromone components was studied in organic apple orchards, in Cawston, BC, 1997. Multi-species disruption with a single 500 'rope' dispenser / ha application of Isomate-CM/LR was compared to a single 500 dispenser / ha application of Isomate-C. Season-long disrup- tion was assessed using synthetic pheromone traps and laboratory-reared females in mating tables. Mean seasonal recaptures of sterile male C. pomonella, using 10 mg codlemone lures in orchards receiving releases of 1000 males / ha / week, were not sig- nificantly different in half-orchard plots (0.5 - 1 ha) of Isomate-CM/LR or Isomate-C. Mating of C. pomonella in Isomate-C- and Isomate-CM/LR-treated plots was negligible. Isomate-CM/LR significantly reduced catches of C. rosaceana and P. limitata relative to catches in Isomate-C-treated plots. Few A. rosanus and no A. argyrospilus were caught in any orchard. Mating of C. rosaceana and P. limitata in lsomate-CM/LR- treated plots was significantly less than in Isomate-C-treated plots. Our results indicate Isomate-CM/LR will disrupt mating of C. pomonella equivalent to Isomate-C and may provide sufficient disruption of leafrollers to supplement biological control in organic orchards. Further studies are needed to show impacts of mating disruption on leafroller populations and damage when applied to larger areas and for several seasons sequen- tially.

Key Words: Codling moth, leafrollers, mating disruption, Isomate, organic apples


Disruption of pheromone communica- tion and mating of moths by releasing syn- thetic pheromones into the atmosphere is being employed worldwide as a highly- specific alternative to insecticides (Jutsum and Gordon 1989; Ridgway ef al. 1990; Cardé and Minks 1995). While the speci- ficity of pheromone controls is appealing for integrated programmes, this specificity undermines use in crops where secondary pests may become primary pests when use of insecticides is reduced (Croft and Hoyt 1983). Apple production in the Pacific

Northwest is a good example of where pheromone-based mating disruption (Howell 1992; Judd et al. 1996) as a re- placement for broad-spectrum insecticides to control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), has resulted in increasing damage from several species (Brunner ef al. 1994; Knight 1995; Gut and Brunner 1998) that are controlled to some degree by insecti- cides targeting codling moth (Madsen and Proctor 1985).

One solution to this problem is to broaden the range of action of mating-

' Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, 4200 Hwy 97, Summerland,

B.C., Canada VOH 1Z0


disruption products by combining phero- mone components common to more than one species, or by mixing uncommon pheromone components from different species. There are few published examples of multi-species mating-disruption (Ridgway et al. 1990; Cardé and Minks 1995) but where this has been attempted it usually involves pheromone components common to closely related species (Pfeiffer et al. 1993; Deland et al. 1994; Evenden et al. 1999a,b). For example, four species of leafrollers (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae) found infesting apple orchards in BC (Madsen and Madsen 1980), the obliquebanded lea- froller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), threelined leafroller, Pandemis limitata (Robinson), European leafroller, Archips rosanus (L.) and fruit-tree leafroller, Ar- chips argyrospilus (Walker), all use (Z)- 11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:Ac) as the major component in their multi-component pheromone blends (Arn ef a/. 1982). In small-plot studies, Deland ef al. (1994) demonstrated that pheromone communica- tion in C. rosaceana, A. rosanus, and A. argyrospilus could be disrupted with a 93:7 blend of Z11-14:Ac and (E£)-11- tetradecenyl acetate (£11-14:Ac), and Evenden et al. (1999b) showed it was pos- sible to simultaneously disrupt mating of C. rosaceana and P. limitata with a 98:2 blend of Z11-14:Ac and £11-14:Ac. Ef- fectiveness of unattractive, generic phero- mone blends as mating disruptants for these species is probably related to the fact that attraction to pheromone dispensers, 1.e. false-trail following (sensu Bartell 1982), may not be necessary to achieve a high percentage of disruption (Knight ef al.1998; Evenden ef al. 1999a,b,c; Knight and Turner 1999).

The alternative idea of using one dis- pensing system to release pheromone com- ponents uncommon to all species being targeted has been around for some time (Deventer et al. 1992), but there are few examples or commercial products. Isomate-CM/LR 1s a multi-species mating- disruption product that was registered in 1997 for commercial use in the United States to control codling moth and leafrol- lers. Isomate-CM/LR was not registered in Canada at that time because efficacy data were lacking (Heather McBrien, personal communication) and to the best of our knowledge there are still no published data on its use in Canada. With a view towards registering mating-disruption products for simultaneous control of codling moth and leafrollers in BC we tested the utility of Isomate-CM/LR as a commercial mating- disruption product (Shin-etsu. Chemical Company, Tokyo, Japan).

The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that codling moth pheromone could be mixed in the same reservoir and released with pheromone components of leafrollers without compro- mising disruption of this ‘key’ pest of ap- ples which can be controlled with regis- tered single-species disruption products like Isomate-C (Judd et al. 1996,1997). Secondly, we wanted a season-long assess- ment of communication and mating disrup- tion of leafrollers with Isomate-CM/LR in commercial orchards, because previous work was conducted for short test periods, in small plots, with noncommercial dis- pensers (Deland ef al. 1994; Evenden et al. 1999a,b,c). Our third objective was to begin gathering efficacy data on Isomate- CM/LR for Canadian registration agencies which was lacking in 1997.


Test Orchards. Experiments were con- ducted in five, commercial organic apple orchards located in the Similkameen Val- ley, Cawston, BC (Judd et al. 1997). Or- chards ranged in size from | - 2 ha and were composed of mixed apple varieties

planted at densities of 600 - 900 trees / ha with tree x row spacings of 2.4 - 4.6 x 4.6 - 5.5 m, respectively. Trees ranged in height from 2.5 - 3.5 m and were pruned using a pyramid shape training system. Wild populations of codling moth were very low


in these orchards due to successful use of mating disruption since 1990 (Judd ef al. 1997) and benefits derived from release of sterile moths by the Okanagan-Kootenay Sterile Insect Release (SIR) programme (Dyck and Gardiner 1992). During the current study, SIR programme staff were releasing 1000 mixed sex (1:1 male:female ratio) sterile codling moths in each ha of every orchard two times each week. These standardized releases ensured there were approximately equal numbers of codling moths present in all orchards where we could assess disruption. No insecticides were applied to these orchards during this study.

Pheromone Disruption Treatments. Each orchard was divided into approxi- mately equal halves (0.5 - 1 ha). One half was treated with Isomate-C and the other with Isomate-CM/LR. Both of these prod- ucts are ‘rope-type’ twist-tie dispensers marketed by Pacific Buiocontrol Corp., Vancouver, WA. Isomate-C 1s a translu- cent polyethylene dispenser containing a 155 mg blend of 58.8% (E,E)-8,10- dodecadien-l-ol (codlemone), 29.5% do- decanol, 5.3% tetradecanol and 6.4 % inert ingredients. Isomate-CM/LR is a brownish red polyethylene dispenser containing a 285 mg blend of 36.9% codlemone, 1.8% isomers of codlemone, 6.0% dodecanol, 1.2% tetradecanol, 43.5% Z11-14:Ac, 2.4% E11-14:Ac, and 8.2% inert ingredi- ents, with similar design and release-rate characteristics as Isomate-C’ which has superceded Isomate-C as a commercial product but which contains the same active ingredients (Don Thomson, personal com- munication).

All pheromone dispensers were de- ployed at a rate of 500 / ha between 1 May and 6 May. Dispensers were attached to branches in the upper third of the tree can- opy ca. 0.5 - 1.0 m below the tip of the central leader or on the first lateral branch down from the tip.

Disruption of Pheromone Communi- cation. Disruption of pheromone commu- nication in codling moth was assessed by comparing catches of SIR-released sterile

male moths in synthetic pheromone-baited traps in the two disruption treatments. Two Pherocon 1-CP style closed wing traps (Phero Tech Inc., Delta, B.C.) baited with 10 mg of codlemone (99% isomeric and chemical purity, Shin-etsu, Fine Chemicals Division, Tokyo, Japan) were deployed in each pheromone-treated plot (two traps / half-orchard treatment). Traps were hung ca.1.5 - 2.0 m above ground near the centre of each treatment on 8 May and were checked weekly until 18 Septem- ber. Trap bottoms were replaced weekly and lures were changed every third week. Sterile codling moths were identified by an internal red dye sequestered from the artifi- cial diet used to rear them (Dyck and Gar- diner 1992).

Trap catches in pheromone-treated or- chards were compared with catches in ad- jacent, paired conventional orchards also receiving sterile moths. These insecticide- treated, but non-pheromone-treated or- chards, are hereafter referred to as “non- treated”. Two wing traps baited with 1 mg of codlemone were deployed as above in each non-treated orchard. Weekly catches in these orchards provide a seasonal record of sterile moth activity in the absence of pheromone-disruption treatments.

Disruption of pheromone communica- tion in leafrollers was assessed by compar- ing catches of male C. rosaceana, P. limi- tata, A. rosanus, and A. argyrospilus in the two pheromone-treated halves of each or- ganic orchard. Two Pherocon 1-C style open (5 cm spacer) wing traps (Phero Tech Inc., Delta, B.C.) baited with 3 mg (Deland et al. 1994) of each species’ pheromone were deployed in the middle of each pheromone-treatment (two traps / species / disruption treatment x four species). One trap for each species was hung ca.1.5 - 2.0 m above ground on different sides of the same tree, in each of two separate trees, ca. 20 m apart in the centre row of each plot. Positions for all traps remained fixed throughout the season. Traps were checked weekly from June 6 until Septem- ber 18 when moths were removed and counted. All pheromone lures were


changed at three-week intervals and trap bottoms were replaced as needed.

Synthetic pheromone baits for each leafroller species were prepared with chemical components (Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA) of known purity, as confirmed by gas-chromatographic analysis (Z11-14:Ac, 98% with 2% E11-14:Ac; Z11-14:Ald, 96%; Z11-14-:0H, 97%; Z9-14:Ac, 96%, and 12:Ac, 97%) using published ratios (Roelofs et al. 1976a,b; Vakenti ef al. 1988; Deland ef al. 1993).

In making pheromone lures for all five species, a 200 pl solution of each phero- mone blend was dissolved in dichloro- methane and loaded into separate red rub- ber septa (Aldrich Chemical Company Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA). After loading, septa were air dried for ca. 18 h at 23 °C in a fume hood and stored at 0 °C until pinned to the inner side of trap lids in the field.

Disruption of Mating. Disruption of mating was assessed using virgin female moths in mating tables described by McBrien and Judd (1996). Only mating of C. pomonella, C. rosaceana, and P. limi- tata, was assessed because these were the only species we had in rearing. C. pomo- nella were reared on an artificial diet (Dyck and Gardiner 1992) at 27 °C under a 16:8 h L:D photoregime and C. rosaceana and P. limitata were reared on a modified pinto bean-based diet (Shorey and Hale 1965) at 24 °C and 16:8 h photoregime. Female pupae of each species were placed individually in 150-ml plastic cups pro- vided with a wet cotton wick until adults eclosed. Female moths aged 24 - 72 h were immobilized at 0.5 °C and one fore- wing and a tarsal tip were clipped with fine forceps before transporting them to field sites in refrigerated containers.

Individual females of these three spe- cies were placed in the same tree, in the upper third of the canopy, in each of five trees laid out in a die pattern centred in each pheromone-treated plot. Females were several trees removed from their re- spective species-specific pheromone traps.

Availability of female C. pomonella al- lowed us to deploy mating tables in non- treated orchards for comparison, but short- ages of leafrollers prevented this deploy- ment. All female moths were placed in the field in the afternoon and removed the fol- lowing morning to minimize predation and escape. Females recovered from the field were returned to the laboratory and each bursa copulatrix was dissected and exam- ined for the presence of a spermatophore which indicates they had mated. Females were omitted from the data if they were dead when recovered.

Female C. pomonella were placed in the field on two nights, every second week from 19 May until 6 September. Female leafrollers were placed in the field on 2 to 4 nights, every week for three consecutive weeks starting 3 July and 12 August which corresponded to peak flight periods of first and second generation, respectively.

Harvest Fruit Damage. Although our experiments were not designed to evaluate crop protection specifically, a sample of 2500 fruit was taken from each phero- mone-treated plot in each of the five or- ganic orchards in order to establish back- ground levels of leafroller damage for fu- ture reference. Samples were taken during normal harvest dates as fruit maturity and growers dictated. All fruit were examined for damage from codling moth, including stings and deep entries, and early and late season leafroller feeding. Each _half- orchard treatment was sampled by walking a “W” pattern from corner to corner and edge to edge and systematically choosing 25 trees, 5 edge and 20 interior trees. One hundred fruit were removed from each sample tree by picking 50 low and 50 high fruit from south-side branches.

Statistical Analyses. | For each spe- cies, moth captures from both traps in each pheromone treatment in the same orchard were pooled and transformed (logy [x +1]) to normalize the data. Mean seasonal cu- mulative moth catches in the two phero- mone treatments were compared using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) appropriate for a randomized block design (Zar 1984),


where orchards are blocks (n = 5) and there are 2 pheromone treatments assigned ran- domly to either half orchard. Statistical comparisons were not made between cod- ling moth catches in pheromone-treated and non-treated orchards because the latter orchards were treated with insecticides that could confound any comparison. In addi- tion, different strength lures were used to monitor codling moth in pheromone- treated and non-treated orchards. How- ever, catches of sterile codling moths from non-treated orchards are presented for

comparisons of their relative seasonal ac- tivity. Low recovery of females in mating tables meant mean percentage mating per orchard could not be estimated reliably, therefore recovered females were pooled across orchards by treatment and tests were used to compare the frequency of mating in the two pheromone treatments. A randomized block ANOVA was used to compare mean damage estimates from the two treatments after an arcsine Vp transfor- mation of the data.


Disruption of Pheromone Communi- cation in C. pomonella. In non-treated orchards the mean (+ SE) seasonal catch of sterile codling moths / trap (1051.7 + 307.2) was several times greater than catches in either pheromone-treatment (Table 1). Comparing catches of C. pomo- nella in this way likely underestimates the level of disruption achieved by pheromone treatments, because traps were baited with different strength lures and _ insecticides may have reduced catches of sterile moths in non-treated orchards. While the SIR programme dictated use of 1 mg lures in conventional orchards, we chose to use 10 mg lures in pheromone-treated plots be- cause they ensured sufficient moth cap- tures to detect differences in pheromone treatments. Disorientation of C. pomonella would likely appear greater had we used 1 mg lures in pheromone-treated orchards, because they catch very few moths in this situation relative to 10 mg lures (Judd ef al. 1996). Correcting for this difference in relative attraction we calculate from catches in Table 1, that Isomate-C caused 91% and Isomate-CM/LR caused 90% disorientation relative to the 1051 moths caught / trap in non-treated orchards.

There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the mean seasonal number of sterile moths caught / trap in plots treated with Isomate-C (274.5 + 44.4) or Isomate- CM/LR (311.9 + 126.2). This result indi- cates that both pheromone treatments dis-

rupted orientation of codling moth to a similar extent and therefore, the release of leafroller pheromone components from Isomate-CM/LR had no detrimental affect on disruption of codling moth pheromone communication (Table 1).

Mean weekly catches of sterile C. pomonella pooled across pheromone- treated orchards (Fig. 1A) reveals few weekly differences between rates of recap- ture in plots treated with Isomate-C or Isomate-CM/LR, suggesting both dispens- ers were equally disruptive under varied weekly weather conditions. Weekly catches of sterile moths under both phero- mone treatments was low early in the sea- son and began to increase near 3 July (Fig. 1A). This increase is more likely caused by a general increase in the activity of ster- ile moths, or response to traps as the sea- son progressed, than by decreasing effects of disruption treatments. This conclusion is based on the fact that catches of sterile males in non-treated orchards also doubled in weeks 9 - 16 compared with weeks | - 8 (Fig. 1A).

Disruption of Pheromone Communi- cation in Leafrollers. Mean seasonal catches of C. rosaceana and P. limitata were both significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the Isomate-CM/LR treatment than in the Isomate-C treatment (Table 1). Almost no Archips spp. were caught in any orchards, supporting the view that these species are generally found further north and more


Table 1. Seasonal cumulative catches of male moths in synthetic pheromone-baited traps and mating of sentinel females in mating tables for each of four species in each half of five organic apple orchards treated with different commercial pheromone dispensers, Cawston, BC, 1997.

Commercial pheromone disruption Mean (+ SE) number treatment (500 dispensers / ha)

Moth species’

Isomate-C Isomate-CM/LR

C. pomonella

Isomate-C Isomate-CM/LR

C. rosaceana

Isomate-C Isomate-CM/LR

P. limitata

Isomate-C Isomate-CM/LR

A. rosanus

Isomate-C Isomate-CM/LR

A. argyrospilus

% of females

of moths / trap” mating” 275.5+ 44.4a 0.0a 311.9+ 126.2a 0.9a 752.7 + 356.8a 25.9a 124.2 + 187.6b 7.8b 542.7 + 241.5a 32.6a 84.7 + 103.7b 5.6b 2.0+ 0.8 nt 0.0 nt 00 00 0.0 00+ 0.0nt 0.0 nt 002 “0:0 0.0

' All C. pomonella caught were sterile moths released (1000 males / ha / orchard / week) by the Okanagan-Kootenay Sterile Insect Release Programme.

> Means of seasonal cumulative catches in two traps in each of five orchards. Paired means within a species followed by different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05) by Random-

ized Block ANOVA. nt = no test.

* Paired percentages within a species followed by different letters are significantly (P < 0.05) different by x’ tests on observed frequencies of mating.

frequently in the Okanagan than in the Similkameen Valley (Madsen and Madsen 1980).

Weekly catches of C. rosaceana are shown in Fig. 1B. Catch curves in both treatments reflect a large first-generation and small second-generation flight. This pattern is typically seen in insecticide- treated orchards and is thought to occur because insecticides applied during first generation reduce second-generation popu- lations (Madsen and Madsen 1980). This cannot explain our results because organic orchards were not treated with insecticides. A small second-generation flight may arise because first-brood larvae often enter dia- pause early in this region. Therefore, con- trol of this first generation is important because it prevents an escape of insects that give rise to an overwintering popula- tion with potential to undermine long-term control.

Weekly catches of C. rosaceana were reduced 70.9 - 100% in the Isomate—CM/ LR treatment relative to the Isomate-C

treatment (Fig. 1B), and reductions aver- aged 90.3% for the season across all or- chards (Table 1). Deland et al. (1994) reported a similar 89 - 91% average disori- entation of C. rosaceana to synthetic pheromone traps in 0.1 ha plots treated with 1000 - 2000 Hamaki-con (Shin-etsu Chemical Company Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) dispensers per ha, releasing a 93:7 blend of Z11-14:Ac and £11-14:Ac at ca. 20 - 40 mg / ha / h (Deland 1992). Given that a single Isomate-CM/LR dispenser releases ca. 1 mg Z11-14:Ac / day in the Okanagan Valley (GJRJ, unpublished data), 500 Isomate-CM/LR dispensers would release ca. 21 mg / ha/h. Therefore, using more than 500 Isomate-CM/LR dispensers per ha to disrupt C. rosaceana would seem unwarranted.

Weekly catches of P. limitata are shown in Fig. 1C. Unlike catches of C. rosaceana, which showed two distinct peaks in the Isomate-C treatment (Fig. 1B), catches of P. limitata remained high all season in the Isomate-C treatment (Fig.


a Isomate-CM/LR

Cydia pomonella

Pandemis limitata

Mean Number of Moths Caught / Trap / Week

[etl Isomate-C

ZA Non-treated

ee eee


Figure 1. Mean weekly catches of mass-reared, sterile male Cydia pomonella released by the Okanagan-Kootenay SIR Programme (A), wild male Choristoneura rosaceana (B) and wild male Pandemis limitata (C) in their respective species-specific synthetic pheromone-baited traps hung in non-treated conventional apple orchards (C. pomonella) and in Isomate-C- and Isomate-CM/LR-treated halves of organic apple orchards (all species) in Cawston, BC, 1997.

1C). This is quite different from the two distinct peaks Madsen and Madsen (1980) observed in insecticide-treated conven- tional orchards. Catches of P. limitata in the Isomate-CM/LR treatment showed early and late season peaks, but moths were always being caught in low numbers. A second peak in the Isomate-CM/LR treatment may indicate leafroller phero- mone was running out late in the season as found by Knight et a/. (2001). Given the date dispensers were deployed and a | mg / day release rate, dispensers were expected to run out of Z11-14:Ac between 24 - 30

August, exactly when the second peak of catches occurred (Fig. 1C). To make it a reliable product more data are needed on the release of various pheromone compo- nents from Isomate-CM/LR dispensers in relation to temperature.

Weekly catches of P. limitata were reduced 67 - 100% by treatment with Isomate-CM/LR (Fig. 1C) and reductions averaged 88.9% for the season across all orchards (Table 1), relative to the Isomate- C treatment.

Disruption of Mating in C. pomo- nella. Mating of C. pomonella in non-


treated orchards receiving sterile moths averaged 48.7% during late May and June and 59% in July and August. In spite of very large numbers of sterile males being released in this study (1000 / ha / week), almost no sentinel female C. pomonella mated in either pheromone treatment, and there was no significant difference (y° = 0.34, df= 1, P > 0.05) in the frequency of mating in the Isomate-C (0 / 223) and Isomate-CM/LR treatments (2 / 212). Mating frequency of C. pomonella in our Isomate-C treatment was quite low when compared with the frequencies of mating among feral codling moths reported by Knight (1996) using passive pane traps, or by Howell (1992) using black light traps, both in Isomate-C-treated orchards. While there may be discrepancy between differ- ent assessment methods, our evaluation of mating is suitable in this context because the relative difference in mating between the two pheromone treatments is of interest here. Given that Isomate-Cis known to control populations of C. pomonella (Judd et al. 1996) and there appears to be little difference in levels of trap disorientation and mating disruption using Isomate-CM/ LR, we expect the level of control with these two products to be simular. Disruption of Mating in Leafrollers. On average, 25.9% (14 / 54) of female C. rosaceana and 32.6% (34 / 104) of female P. limitata mated when placed in the Isomate-C treatment having no leafroller pheromone, while only 7.8% (5 / 64) and 5.6% (6 / 107) of each species, respec- tively, mated in the Isomate-CM/LR treat- ment. Isomate-CM/LR significantly (y° = 5.84, df = 1, P < 0.05) reduced mating of C. rosaceana by 70% and P. limitata by 83% (y° = 23.4, df = 1, P< 0.001), relative to the Isomate-C treatment. Our seasonal level of mating disruption in C. rosaceana was somewhat lower than the 86% ob- served by Evenden et al. (1999b) using a similar blend (100:2 ratio of Z11-14:Ac and £11-14:Ac) and the same dispenser density (500 / ha) in 0.1 ha plots. Lower levels of disruption in our study may be due to higher population densities, or

movement of Z11-14:Ac into the Isomate- C treatment used for comparison. Simulta- neous release of codlemone from Isomate- CM/LR dispensers cannot explain any dif- ferences between these studies because C. rosaceana is not known to detect this chemical (GJRJ, unpublished electroanten- nograms).

Mating of C. rosaceana was similar in first (7.4%) and second generation (8.1%) and although catches of P. limitata in- creased during second generation (Fig. 1C), there was no increase in the frequency of their mating between first (7.5%) and second (2.4%) generation in Isomate-CM/ LR-treated plots. Therefore, the amount of pheromone being released late in the sea- son appears to have been adequate to con- trol mating in leafrollers even if catches appeared to increase (Fig. 1C). Our 83% seasonal average mating disruption for P. limitata was similar to the 85% observed by Evenden ef al. (1999b) when 1000 dis- pensers / ha were employed. Like C. rosaceana above, there may be little value in using more than 500 Isomate-CM/LR dispensers per ha to disrupt mating in P. limitata.

Fruit Damage. As expected given low levels of wild codling moths, release of sterile males, and treatment with phero- mone, there was no detectable codling moth damage in any orchard. _Leafroller damage was very high in these organic orchards and there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in the mean percentage of damage in plots receiving Isomate-C (10.9 + 5.4%) or Isomate-CM/LR (8.7 + 4.7%). These damage levels suggest densities of leafrollers were very high and crop protec- tion can fail under high population densi- ties even if measures of disruption are large (Judd et al. 1996, 1997). While we do not consider our experiment to be a fair evaluation of leafroller control by mating disruption, these data should provide a useful baseline for longer-term mating- disruption trials.

Our studies have demonstrated it 1s possible to simultaneously disrupt phero- mone communication and mating in sym-


patric tortricid moths by releasing an in- complete mixture of their individual phero- mone components. Levels of disorienta- tion and reductions in mating of all species with Isomate-CM/LR were comparable to those seen in studies examining each spe- cies individually (Deland et al. 1994; Evenden et al. 1999a,b,c). Our data sug- gest control of codling moth with Isomate- CM/LR should be comparable to control with registered products like Isomate-C” and Isomate-C (Judd et al. 1996). Isomate-CM/LR also has potential for sup- plementary control of leafrollers. These conclusions are supported by several stud- les using Isomate-CM/LR in Washington State (Knight et a/. 1997; Knight 1998; Knight et al. 2001). These non-refereed reports suggest that when used on an area- wide basis for three years (1998 - 2000), orchards treated with Isomate-CM/LR and supplemental insecticides had 41% less leafroller damage, received one less spray per season and consistently had less cod- ling moth damage than orchards receiving Isomate-C” and supplemental sprays. Lacking in these studies unfortunately, are data from Isomate-CM/LR-treated or- chards receiving no supplemental insecti- cides. Ours is the only evaluation of Isomate-CM/LR where no _ insecticides were applied and the only one reporting actual mating data that we are aware of.

These kinds of data are useful for registra- tion of pheromones in Canada. Efficacy data based on fruit damage are also needed but our study lacks this assessment because the split-orchard design resulted in treat- ment areas too small to prevent movement of mated females or ballooning larvae be- tween treatments. Therefore, it remains to be shown whether measures of disruption observed here will impact the population dynamics of these species and control damage effectively without use of insecti- cides. In this regard, Isomate-CM/LR may have a role to play in supplementing bio- logical control of leafrollers in organic apple orchards where parasitism rates as high as 68% are common during summer in the Similkameen Valley (Cossentine ef al. 2004).

During the revision of this manuscript Isomate-CM/LR was registered by the Ca- nadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency (Heather McBrien, personal com- munication). Nevertheless, multiple-year mating-disruption trials still need to be conducted in larger orchards, or on an area-wide basis (Knight et a/. 2001), and under lower population pressure than seen in this study, before any conclusions about the efficacy of mating disruption as a crop- protection tool for leafrollers in BC can be made.


We thank the Similkameen-Okanagan Organic Producers' Association (SOOPA) and its cooperating members for allowing us to conduct trials in their orchards. We also thank Nicole Verpaelst for technical field assistance. We especially thank Don Thomson from Pacific Biocontrol Corpora-

tion for making Isomate-CM/LR available for testing and sharing technical data on this product. This research was partially funded by the Washington State Tree Fruit Research Commission, SOOPA and the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Match- ing Investment Initiative.


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