A?-*

TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

ROYAL SOCIETY of SOUTH AUSTRALIA

(INCORPORATED).

"VOL. ZZXYIII.

[With Thirty-nine Plates, One Map, and Six Figures in

the Text.]

EDITED BY WALTER HOWCHIN, F.G.S.

PRICE, FIFTEEN SHILLINGS.

Published by the Society, Royal Society Rooms, North Terrace.

DECEMBER, 1914.

Printed by Hussey & Gillingham Limited, 106 and 108, Currie Street, Adelaide, South Australia.

Parcels for transmission to the Royal Society of South Aus- tralia from the United States of America can be forwarded through the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

ROYAL SOCIETY of SOUTH AUSTRALIA

(INCORPORATED).

"VOL. XXXVIII.

[With Thirty-nine Plates, One Map, and Six Figures in

the Text.]

EDITED BY WALTER HOWCHIN, F.G.S.

hntih,

PRICE, FIFTEEN SHILLINGS.

Published by the Society, Royal Society Rooms, North Terrace.

DECEMBER, 1914.

Printed by Hussey & Gillingham Limited, 106 and 108, Currie Street, Adelaide, South Australia.

Parcels for transmission to the Royal Society of South Aus- tralia from the United States of America can be forwarded through the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

llojjal Scrctetj) of Banty JitstVaHa

(incorporated)

patron :

HIS EXCELLENCY SIR HENRY LIONEL GALWAY,

K.C.M.G., D.S.O.

OFFICERS FOR iqiZj-15.

president : JOSEPH C. VERCO, M.D., F.R.C.S.

IDice^lpresioents :

PROF. E. H. RENNIE, M.A., D.Sc, F.C.S.

R. S. ROGERS, M.A., M.D.

1bon. treasurer: W. B. POOLE.

1bon. Secretary: WALTER RUTT, C.E.

Members ot Council:

SAMUEL DIXON. PROF. KERR GRANT, M.Sc. PROF. R. W. CHAPMAN, M.A., B.C.E. W. HOWCHIN, F.G.S. (Editor and Representative Governor)

E. ASHBY. R. H. PULLEINE, M.B.

Buoitors : W. L. WARE, J.P. H. WHITBREAD.

CONTENTS.

Page.

HowcHin, W. : The Occurrence of the Genus Cryptozodn in

the (?) Cambrian of Australia. Plates i. to v. ... ... 1

Ferguson, E. W. : Notes on the Amycterides in the South Australian Museum, with Descriptions of New Species. Part i 11

Chewings, Dr. C. : Notes on the Stratigraphy of Central

Australia. (Communicated by Walter Howchin.) ... 41

Bergroth, Dr. E. : On an Hemipterous Insect from an Aus- tralian Opossum's Nest. (Communicated by A. M. Lea.) 53

Dodd, A. P. : Australian Hymen optera Proctotrypoidea.

No. 2. (Communicated by A. M. Lea.) ... ... ... 58

Lea, A. M. : Notes on Australian Cetonides; with a List of Species and Descriptions of New Species. Plates vi. to xiii. 132

Carter, H. J. : Notes on Tenebrionidse in the South Aus- tralian Museum, collected by A. M. Lea, with Descriptions of New Species ... ... ... ... ... 219

Rogers, Dr. R. S. : Additions to the Orchidaceous Plants of

South Australia. Plates xiv. and xv. ... ... ... 239

Turner, Dr. A. J. : On some Moths from Melville and

Bathurst Islands in the South Australian Museum ... 245

Lea, A. M. : Notes on some Miscellaneous Coleoptera, with

Descriptions of New Species. Plate xvi. ... ... ... 249

Ashton, H. : Catalogue of the Cicadidse in the South Aus- tralian Museum, with Descriptions of New Species. Plate xvii. (Communicated by A. M. Lea.) ... ... 345

Rogers, Dr. R. S. : Additions to Australian Orchidaceous

Plants. Plate xviii. ... ... ... ... ... ... 359

Torr, C. M. : Radulse of some South Australian Gasteropoda.

Plates xix and xx. (Communicated by Dr. J. C. Verco.) 362

Carter, H. J. : Notes on Australian Tenebrionidse, with

Descriptions of New Species ... ... ... ... ... 369

White, S. A., and Others : Scientific Notes on an Expedition into the Interior of Australia, carried out by Captain S. A. White. Plates xxi. to xxxix. and Map:

(a J Narrative, by S. A. White 407

(b) Mammalia, by E. R. Waite 418

(c) Aves, by S. A. White 419

(dj Stomach Contents of Birds, by A. M. Lea ... 439

(e) Lacertilia, by F. R. Zietz ... 440

( f) Ophidia, Amphibia, and Pisces, by E. R. Waite 445

(g) Mollusca, by E. H. Matthews 446

(h) Crustacea, by W. H. Baker .. 446

( i) Arachnida, by R. H. Pulleine ... ... ... 447

CONTENTS (Continued).

( jj Insect a :

Coleoptera, by A. M. Lea

Lepidoptera :

Rhopalocera, by G. A. Waterhouse Heterocera, by Dr. A. J. Turner ...

Hymenoptera, by W. W. Froggatt

(k) Botany, by J. M. Black

(I J Analyses of Samples of Water from Bores and Springs, Great Australian Artesian Basin, by W. S. Chapman; with Notes on the same, by L. K. Ward Abstract of Proceedings ... Annual Report Balance-sheets ... ... ... ... ... ... 488,

Donations to Library List of Fellows, etc. Appendices

Field Naturalists' Section: Annual Report, etc. Twenty-sixth Annual Report of the Native Fauna and Flora Protection Committee of the Field Naturalists' Section of the Royal Society Malacological Section: Annual Report, etc. Index

448

455

455 459 460

472 475 485 489 490 507

510

516 519 520

THE

Transactions

OF

The Royal Society of South Australia.

Vol. XXXVIII.

the occurrence of the genus cryptozoon in the (?) Cambrian of Australia.

By Walter Howchin, F.G.S., Lecturer in Geology and Palaeontology, University of Adelaide.

[Read April 2, 1914.] Plates I. to V.

A few months ago Mr. Charles Chewings, Ph.D., for- warded to me from Central Australia a few specimens of a fossiliferous limestone which he thought might be of interest. The organic remains in the limestone being, for the most part, less soluble than the matrix, had weathered into strong relief and thereby exposed both the outline and structure of the fossils in a way very favourable for observation. The very striking resemblance which these forms bore to the obscure fossil, long known to American geologists from the lower Palaeozoic rocks as Cryptozoon, was at once apparent.

Photographs were taken of several of the specimens and forwarded to Dr. Charles Walcott, the Secretary of the Smith- sonian Institution (who has an intimate knowledge of Cam- brian palaeontology), for his opinion. Dr. Walcott confirmed the determination that the objects belonged to the genus re- ferred to, and passed the photographs on to Mr. Bassler, the Curator of Palaeontology in the United States National Museum. Mr. Bassler, in a communication which he kindly favoured me with on the subject, says : "Your photographs represent undoubtedly a new species distinguished from all the other known forms by the fact that the 'heads' are separate and column-like instead of confluent as in most of the other

species. New species similar to this one are known in the lowest Ordovician (Beekmantown) formations of the United States, and it is barely possible that, on account of the similarity, your specimens are from the same horizon.' '

The genus (CryptozoonJ was established by Professor James Hall, in 1884. 0-) Hall's description has been quoted, in extenso, by Dr. Walcott.(2) As the literature on the sub- jects is limited and not very accessible, it may be found useful to reproduce Hairs description here :

"In the town of Greenfield, Saratoga County, there occurs a bed of limestone which presents a very remarkable appear- ance, the surface being nearly covered by closely arranged circular or sub-circular discs which are made up of concentric laminae, closely resembling in general aspect the structure of Stromatopora. It very often happensi that within these larger discs there occur two or more smaller ones, each with its own concentric structure and exterior limitation, and appearing as if budding from the parent mass. A farther examination shows that the entire form of these masses is hemispheric or turbinate, with the broadest face exposed upon the upper surface of the limestone layer ; that their growth has begun from a point below, and, rapidly expanding upwards, has often extended one or two feet in diameter, as now shown upon the exposed surface of the limestone bed. At a single exposure on the farm of Mr. Hoyt, the surface of the limestone is covered by these bodies for many rods in extent. The entire area of the cellar beneath the house of Mr. Hoyt is upon this bed of limestone closely covered by these hemispheric masses with concentric structure. For a distance of one or two miles to the southward the outcrop of the limestone can be traced, and everywhere presenting the same characters in the presence of these masses. Large numbers of specimens of various sizes have been weathered out and lie scattered over the surface. This fossil has also been found at Little Falls, Herkimer County, New York.

"These bodies have long been known under the name of Stromatopora, from their general resemblance in form and structure to that fossil ; but their position in reference to the bedding of the rock is uniformly the reverse of that of Stromatopora? , which occur in the higher limestones, growing from a broad base which is covered by an epitheca, while these bodies under consideration grow upward and expand

(1) Thirty-sixth Ann. Rept. New York State Mus. Nat. Hist., description of pi. vi.

(2) Smithsonian Miscell. Coll., vol. lvii., No. 9. Idem, pi. xxxvii., photo, of C. proliferum, by Dr. Walcott.

3

from a point below, while the convex surface is on the lower side. A careful examination of the nature of these bodies proves that, while having the concentric structure common to Stromatopora, they have not the regular succession of layers of tubuli characteristic of the species of that genus and cannot properly be included under that term. I therefore propose the term Gryptozoon as a designation for this peculiar form and mode of growth which will be more fully elucidated in the future."

Hall recognized but one species (Gryptozoon proliferum) ,. which he denned in the following terms :

"These bodies are made up of irregular, concentric laminae of greater or less density and of very unequal thick- ness. The substance between the concentric lines, in well- preserved specimens, is traversed by numerous, minute, ir- regular canaliculi which branch and anastomose without regularity- The central portion of the masses are usually filled with crystalline, granular, and oolitic material, and many specimens show the intrusion of these extraneous and inorganic substances between the concentric laminae. That these are intrusions and not inclusions, is shown from the fact that they can be traced to a vertical fissure or break leading to the exterior of the fossil, and which allowed the crystalline matter to enter."

Sir William Dawson examined specimens from the type locality and has published (3) the following additional observ- ations :

"Thin slices, from specimens kindly presented to the Peter Redpath Museum by Professor Hall, show that the primary laminae are thin and apparently carbonaceous, as if originally of a corneous or membranous character, and they are usually finely crumpled as if by lateral pressure, while they can occasionally be seen to divide into two laminae with intervening coarsely cellular structure. The thick intermediate layers which separate these primary laminae are composed of grains of calcareous, dolomitic, and siliceous matter, in some specimens with much fine carbonaceous material. This last, under a high power in thin slices, is seen to present the appearance of a fine network or stroma in which the inorganic particles are entangled. The canals traversing these inter- mediate layers appear to be mere perforations without distinct walls, and are filled with transparent, calcareous matter, which renders them, under a proper light, sufficiently distinct

(3) Note on Gryptozoon and other Ancient Fossils. Canadian Record of Science, vol. vii., No. 4 (October, 1896), p. 205. b2

from the grey granular intermediate matter which they tra- verse. So far as observed, the canals are confined to the inter- mediate layers, and do not seem to penetrate the primary laminae, though these sometimes present a reticulated appear- ance, and seem to have occasional spaces in them which may have been communicating pores or orifices."

In the same paper from which the above descriptions have been taken, Dawson describes two additional species : (4)

Cryptozoon boreaie. "Consists of a mass of cylindrical or turbinate branches, proceeding from a centre and also budding laterally from each other. Each branch shows a series of laminae concave upward. The spaces between the thin laminae are filled with a very fine granular material in which are canals, less frequent, straighter, and more nearly parallel to the laminae than in the typical species. This species is remarkable for the slender and coral-like shape of its branches." The specimens were obtained at Lake St. John, Quebec, in rocks of Trenton (Ordovician) age.

Cryptozoon occidentale. This species was described from imperfectly preserved specimens obtained from the Grand Canyon, in Arizona, and from rocks which have been classed as "Pre-Cambrian" (corresponding to the Kewenian of Lake Superior, and the Etcheminian of southern New Brunswick), and therefore belonging to the lowest known fossiliferous horizon. Dr. Dawson says: "Though most of them were im- perfectly preserved, one of them exhibited the concentric laminae of Cryptozoon, and the intermediate layers composed of microscopic grains which were ascertained by Dr. Adams to be partly siliceous and partly calcareous (dolomite and calcite). Instead of the irregular curving canals of the typical Cryptozoon, where best preserved they show ragged cells, giving off on all sides numerous small tortuous and branching canals, but their structure I regard as possibly corresponding to that of Cryptozoon, and I would therefore venture to name the species C. occidentale in hope of the discovery of better specimens."

Two other doubtful determinations may be mentioned on the authority of Dr. Dawson. <5) In 1885, Professor N. H. Winchill named a Stromatopora-like form C. minnesotense, from the Upper Cambrian of Minnesota ; and Dr. Dawson named another form from the Calciferous (Lower Ordovician) of Lachute, Province of Quebec, but the author states : "I can- not positively affirm that this is a distinct species, but may provisionally name it, C. lachutense."

WLoc. cit., pp. 207 and 208, figs. 1-3. (5)Xoc. cit., p. 206.

Archceozoon. The objects obtained by Dr. G. F. Matthew from the Pre-Cambrian limestones of St. John, New Bruns- wick, Canada, and named by him Archceozoon acadiense,^ ap- pear to be the same, or very similar, organism as Hall's Crypto- zoon, the chief difference being that while in Gryptozoon the laminae are concave to the direction of growth, in Archceozoon they are convex. This, however, may be of slight morpho- logical importance, and may indicate a difference of not more than specific value, if even it be that.

The zoological position of this ancient organism is ill- defined and cannot, at present, be satisfactorily determined. In the first instance, and for some time after their discovery, they were regarded as Stromatoporoid in their affinities with probable relationships with the Hydrozoa. Later, when the microscopical structure was investigated, Dawson was led to believe that they were more nearly related to the Rhizopodal Protozoa. He says : "If we endeavour in imagination to restore these curious organisms, the task is a very difficult one. They, no doubt, grew on the sea-bottom, and must have had great powers of assimilation and increase in bulk. Still, it must be borne in mind that they were largely made up of inorganic particles collected from the mud and fine sand in process of deposition. The amount of actual organic matter in the hard parts, even of large specimens, is not very great, and the soft living material, if they were animal, must have been confined to the canals and to the exterior surfaces.

"As the only marine animals known to accumulate foreign matter in this manner are the Protozoa of the Rhizopod type, one naturally turns to them for analogies, and perhaps species of the genus Loftusia most nearly resemble them in general arrangement." (7)

When Dawson gave these descriptions the relatively large organisms, Loftusia and Parkeria, as well as the much-dis- cussed Eozoon, were regarded as Foraminifera. Since then, the first two mentioned have been classed with the Hydrozoa, and the third has been relegated to the inorganic world.

Gryptozoon is of gigantic size, even when compared with the largest of all known Foraminifera, and its internal struc- ture is by no means conclusive of a relationship to these or any other section of the Protozoa. The large proportion which the mineral constituents bear to the whole structure is sug- gestive of an animal rather than a vegetable origin, although

(6) G. F. Matthew, Presid. Add. Nat. His. Soc. of New Bruns- wick, Bull, ix., p. 32 (1891) also, same author, Note on Archceozoon, ibid, Bull. xxv. (vol. v.), p. 547 (1906). Sir W. Dawson, Joe. cit., p. 208.

(7)Zoc. cit., p. 209.

the possibility of their being related to the calcareous Algae must be considered. The testaceous Protozoa are not pro- minently developed in the lower Palaeozoic rocks, and when they do occur are, mostly, inconspicuous. On the other hand, Cryptozoon reached, relatively, gigantic proportions. Dawson says : "The larger masses are from one to two feet in diameter." It seems probable that Cryptozoon is a primitive type that does not closely accord with any of our existing phyla, but may be an ancestral form of the Stromatoporoidea, or some other group of the calcareous Hydrozoa. The silicification of the fossils is undoubtedly pseudomorphic in its origin. They were, no doubt, originally calcareous, and in the case of one species, described in this paper, the silicification is present only to a very limited degree.

In dealing with so ancient an organism of doubtful affinities it is difficult to determine what particular features are of specific value. The Australian specimens exhibit a close re- semblance to the generic type, but appear to be distinguish- able from all hitherto described species in some particulars.

Cryptozoon australicum, sp. nov. Plates i. and ii.

Skeleton consists of columnar growths which, in transverse sections, are circular or sub-circular. Average diameter of columns, § in. ; with a range of variation from ^ in. to 2 in. in diameter. No peripheral wall. Each column is built up of closely-set laminae, of varying thickness, which are either concave or convex to the direction of growth. (8> The laminae are situated about one millimetre apart (about 25 laminae to the inch), and are sometimes crenulated or wavy. The laminae, which in the fossil condition comprise the entire skeleton, consist of earthy or siliceous material which is not acted upon by acids, and under a magnifying lens exhibits a very minute labyrinthic or spongiform structure. The spaces between the laminae are filled with a fine, granular, calcareous material identical with the rock mass in which the fossils are embedded. As a rule the columns are separate and exhibit a regular parallelism of growth.

(8) The fragmentary condition of the specimens make this point somewhat uncertain, as it is at times difficult to determine which is the right way up of the columns. It is assumed, however, that the thicker end of the column is the growing end, and, on this evidence, where it is available, it would appear that the laminse may take either an upward or downward curve, or be flat in the centre and then turned either upwards or downwards when approaching the periphery of the column. These variations may prove to be only accidents of growth.

The relative insolubility of the fossils, in comparison with the matrix, has led to their weathering out in strong relief. It is highly probable that the original skeleton of the organism was calcareous, and that the present form is that of a siliceous pseudomorph, in a similar way that many of the Archceocya- thincE, in the Cambrian of South Australia, are preserved in the form of siliceous casts. The interlaminar spaces, now filled with the rock matrix, may possibly represent the chambers that contained the protoplasmic material of the living organ- ism ; or, otherwise, some portions of the skeleton that failed to fossilize.

The present species differs from the type (G. proliferum, Hall) in the greater independence of the columns, and also in their more regular arrangement.

Cryptozoon tessellattjm, sp. nov. Plates iii. and iv. w

Among the specimens sent down by Dr. Chewings are three which possess features somewhat different from those just described. In this form the columns are almost en- tirely calcareous, and vary greatly both as to size and shape. In transverse sections they may be circular, sub-circular, quadrate, angular, or irregular in form, and are frequently confluent and branching. Notwithstanding their great di- versity of shape they maintain a very regular arrangement in relation to each other, the intercolumnar spaces being uniform throughout. This form of growth, together with the fact that the fossils and the limestone matrix weather uni- formly, gives a curious tessellated or mosaic appearance to the specimens. So far as can be determined from the limited material at command the laminae of the columns are similar to those described in the preceding species.

The distinctive features in the present species are the irregular shape of the columns, their frequent bifurcation ■and confluence, and the regularity of the intercolumnar space.

As all the spcimens at command are fragments, it is im- possible to determine what may have been the shape of the organism in its aggregate or compound form.

Locality and Mode of Occurrence.

The locality where Dr. Chewings discovered the fossils described in this paper was near the eastern end of the South MacDonnell Ranges, on the north side of the mail road from Alice Springs to Arltunga, midway between Mount Benstead and Love's Creek station.

8

In relation to the discovery, Dr. Cliewings writes from Arltunga (September 12, 1912) : "You will be interested to know that I made what I take to be a very important dis- covery of probably Cambrian fossils the other day, in the MacDonnell Ranges. They occur for several miles in a massive limestone (dolomite) range that skirts the gneissic and granitic formation of the Central MacDonnell."

The following is a sketch supplied by Dr. Chewings to show the stratigraphical relationship of his discovery to the f ossiliferous Ordovicians of the same ranges :

SKETCH SECTION OF CENTRAL MACDONNELL RANGES

(Chewings).

A. Gneissic and Granitic (? Pre-Cambrian). B. Quartzite (? Cambrian). C. Dolomitic Limestone (? Cambrian); Cryptozoon fossils at xx. D. Ordovician fossils at x x .

''The Ordovician beds (D), with fossils, occur as shown on the rough section. The 'inner' quartzite and limestone beds (B and C) I have always held to be older, but could never find fossils in them until now/' [Chewings.]

In a further letter, dated October 5, 1912, from Charlotte Waters, he writes : "The quartzite runs the whole length of the MacDonnell Ranges, viz., from beyond Mount Udor to east of Arltunga, sometimes in broken and isolated hills, at others in a continuous line or lines forming the highest range of the MacDonnell. The dolomite I know to extend from Mount Giles to east of Arltunga, and, like the quartzite, is always very much disturbed, broken, and thrust about. It has undergone such disturbance and alteration that all trace of fossils has, in most parts, disappeared. Where the fossils were found the dolomite is of great thickness, and for a couple of miles, in one place, viz., near Acacia Well, which lies south of Mount Benstead, and in another, viz., two miles south of Bitter Springs, the fossils escaped obliteration. The two spots are five miles apart. Where the samples were found there is no lack of similar material, the rock being largely composed of the same coralline rock, or what origin- ally were corals. Where the fossils occur the dolomite beds dip south, at say, So0."

Geological Age of the Fossils.

Unfortunately there is a want of agreement in the opinion of the few geologists who have had the opportunity of examining the older rocks of Central Australia. Mr. H._ Y. L. Brown, (9) the late Government Geologist, as well as Dr. Chewings/10^ include a Cambrian series between the Pre- Cambrian and the Ordovician of the MacDonnell Ranges; whilst Tate and Watt do not recognize any rocks of Cambrian age in the MacDonnell Ranges, and affirm that the Ordovicians rest directly on the Pre-Cambrian bed-rock. This interpre- tation of the geological order is strongly maintained by these authors (in opposition to the views of Brown and Chewings) in their Report of the Horn Expedition to Central Australia.

It is in this disputed borderland, between the Ordovician and Pre-Cambrian, that Dr. Chewings obtained the fossils described in this paper. Tate and Watt would probably in- clude the fossiliferous horizon in their Ordovician, while Brown and Chewings place it in the Cambrian. As bearing on this question it is important to note that undoubted Cam- brian fossils have been found in Central Australia. An Olenellus (0. browni) was obtained by Mr. Brown at Alex- andra station, situated between Tennant Creek and the Queensland border; and Agnostus and Microdiscus were ob- tained at Elkedra station, 150 miles south of the preceding locality, and in a north-east direction from the MacDonnell Ranges.

In America the genus Gryptozoon appears to have a rather extensive vertical range Etcheminian. Cambrian, and Lower Ordovician. It is, therefore, of little value in the present case for determining the geological horizon. The matrix of the Gryptozoon fossils in the MacDonnell's does not, however, resemble the typical limestone of the Ordovicians of that region. The latter are "grey, yellow, and red/' while the Gryptozoon limestones are of a bluish tint and granular structure, having a marked similarity to many of the mag- nesian limestones of the Cambrian of the Flinders Ranges, more to the south. The question of age must be left as a doubtful point at present, with the weight of the evidence, probably, in favour of them being Cambrian.

(9) Mr. Brown's views are contained in various official reports, published by Authority, and also in his Geological Maps of the MacDonnell and associated regions.

(10) Geological Notes on the Upper Finke River Basin, Trans. Roy. Soc, S.A., vol. xiv., p. 247: also Notes on Sediment. Rocks in the MacDonnell and James Ranges. Ibid., vol. xviii., p. 197.

10

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.

[All figures are of natural size. J

Plate I. Cryptozoon australicum, sp. nov. Fig. 1. A group of columns exposed in strong relief by weather- ing. The laminae are apparently convex to the direction of growth. The middle column, in front, has an expanded base.

Fig. 2. A group of columns possessing, apparently, concave lamina?. The columns exhibit a regular parallelism of growth without bifurcation. Exposed on weathered surface of limestone.

Plate II. Cryptozoon australicum, sp. nov Fig. 1. Longitudinal view of weathered column possessing concave and wavy laminae.

Fig. 2. End view of same specimen showing broken concave laminae.

Plate III.

Cryptozoon tessellatum, sp. nov.

Slab of limestone, about an inch thick, in which the fossils and matrix have weathered equally to a relatively flat surface. The columns are of irregular size and shape, but maintain equal distances from each other. The intercolumnar space is filled with amorphous limestone, which gives the stone a tessellated appear- ance. The opposite face is similar to that shown in the figure, and the vertical sections, on the sides of the stone, show the characteristic lamination of the organism.

Plate IV. Cryptozoon tessellatum, sp. nov. Fig. 1. A slab rubbed down and polished showing transverse sections of the columns, which are similar to those seen in plate iii. Fig. 2. Polished longitudinal section of a column, with convex laminae, showing increase of diameter by growth.

Plate V. Cryptozoon proliferum, Hall.

[This plate has been reproduced by the courtesy of Dr. Walcottr who kindly forwarded his original photographs that they might be used for purposes of comparison in this paper. See Smithsonian Miscell. Colleo. (Cambrian Geology and Palaeontology), vol. lvii., No. 9. plate 37. The "Description of Plate" supplied below is that of Dr. Walcott's.]

Fig. 1 (natural size). View by transmitted light, of a thin transverse section, showing the lamellae.

Fig. 2 (natural size). View by transmitted light, of a thin section, showing the lamellae where there was a slight dislocation r caused by irregularity of growth.

Fig. 3 (natural size). View of the weathered surface of lime- stone, showing several specimens.

The specimens represented by figs. 1 to 3 are from the Upper Cambrian shaly calcareous sandstone, resting on massive layers of Potsdam sandstone, east side of the town of Whitehall, Washington County, New York

11

NOTES ON THE AMYCTEFMDES IN THE SOUTH AUS- TRALIAN Museum, with Descriptions of New Species.- Part I.

By Eustace W. Ferguson, M.B., Ch.M.

[Head April 2, 1914.]

Some little time ago, on requesting permission to examine the Amy derides in the South Australian Museum, the authori- ties of that institution very kindly allowed me full oppor- tunity to examine all the specimens in their charge and to describe the new species. The present paper deals with the first four principal genera, together with one or two smaller allied ones. I have thought it advisable to note all the species sent for examination, together with their habitat. In this connection it should be noted that many of the older speci- mens are without locality labels beyond "Australia. Old collection." The collection is particularly rich in species of Sclerorinus, but I have purposely deferred commenting on the range and distribution of these until the genus is con- sidered as a whole in the revision of the subfamily at present being published in the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. The descriptions of the new species are given at the end of the paper.

1. Psalidura reticulata, Boisd. New South Wales:

Sydney.

2. Psalidura coxi, Macl.

P. coxi, Macl., var. A. New South Wales: Tam- worth.

3. Psalidura costipennis, Ferg. Queensland: Mount

Tambourine (A. M. Lea). Four specimens, two of each sex, agreeing with type except that costse are perhaps slightly less prominent, and the setae are more numerous.

4. Psalidura miracula, Macl. New South Wales : Blue

Mountains, Tenterfield.

5. Psalidura approximata, Ferg. Victoria: Mount

Buffalo (Blackburn).

6. Psalidura forficulata, Macl. South Australia: Ar-

drossan (Tepper). I can detect no difference between Queensland specimens and this single South Aus- tralian example. It would be interesting to know if the species occurs elsewhere in South Australia; otherwise, if this locality be correct, it is very diffi- cult to account for its occurrence so far south.

12

7. Psalidura frenchi, Ferg. ( ?) Queensland : Hughenden

(A. M. Lea). A single rf , probably this species, but with somewhat different elytral sculpture.

8. Psalidura grandis, Ferg. South Australia : Leigh

Creek (Blackburn), Muloolas.

9. Psalidura caudata, Macl. Queensland (Blackburn) T

Longreach (A. M. Lea).

10. Psalidura flavosetosa, Ferg. South Australia :

Ouldea, Fowler Bay. Also from mallee districts, Victoria. Examination of a number of fresh speci- mens shows that the type has suffered some damage, probably from A.nthrenus. The posterior edge of the anal segment is fringed with long hair or setae, a similar tuft is present on the interforficular process of the apical dorsal segment; the laminae also are not absolutely linear, but are narrow, with gently rounded edge, and can only be clearly seen from behind. It should probably be placed in the caudata group, from the two other species of which the widely separated fascicles will distinguish it. The colour of the setae is variable, and the name is hence not a good one.

11. Psalidura elongata, Macl. New South Wales: Con-

dobolin.

12. Psalidura flavovaria, Ferg. South Australia. Doubt-

fully recorded from South Australia; the Museum specimens confirm this habitat. It also occurs in Victoria, specimens having been shown me from Mount Macedon and Portland.

13. Psalidura squamigera, Macl. New South Wales:

Tamworth.

14. Psalidura mirabunda, Gyll. Tasmania; Victoria.

Several specimens sent under the synonyms impressa and howitti. A 9 labelled "Billinghurst" appears to belong to the same species. It is highly probable that mirabunda, Gyll., will have to be sunk in favour of mirabilis, Kirby. Erichson (Wiegm. Arch, i., 1842, p. 113) definitely says that the two names belong to the one species. Specimens of mirabunda and reticulata were sent to the British Museum for comparison with the type of P. mirabilis, but unfor- tunately it could not be found. Kirby describes the laminae as "latae, compressae, obcuneatae, apice rotundatae, laevissimae, glaberrimae, nitidae," a description which, of all the species known to me, will only accurately fit mirabunda.

13

15. Psalidura, sp. ( ?) Western Australia. Blackburn's

collection. A single d" belonging to the mirabunda group, but differing from all the described species. To my mind the locality, Western Australia, is most probably erroneous, and as there is but a single specimen I hesitate to describe it.

16. Psalidura assimilis, Ferg. New South Wales:

Orange.

17. Psalidura abnormis, Macl. New South Wales : Yassy

Mulwala.

18. Psalidura perlata, Ferg. Western Australia : Eucla,

Israelite Bay, Eyre Sandpatch.

19. Psalidura flav esc ens, n. sp.

20. Psalidura brevicauda, n. sp.

21. Psalidura sulcipennis, Ferg. New South Wales:

Blue Mountains (Blackburn).

22. Talaurinus riverince, Macl. New South Wales: Mul-

wala (Sloane) : Victoria: Coromby (Tepper), Sea Lake (Goudie) ; South Australia : Adelaide, Ardros- san (Tepper), Blanchetown (Mrs. Kreusler), Kil- kerran (Blackburn), Yorketown. Numerous speci- mens; the series shows some variation in size, colour of clothing, and setae. Specimens from Port Lincoln (Blackburn) differ in being smaller and in having rather more regular elytral granules. I have not considered them sufficiently distinct to describe even as constituting a variety.

23. Talaurinus tenebricosus, Ferg. South Australia:

Adelaide (Tepper).

24. Talaurinus, sp. A single 9 allied to T. tenebri-

cosus, but with much rougher sculpture. The speci- men is without locality from Blackburn's collection; it was sent under the name of "morbillosusr Boisd. (?)"

25. Talaurinus tomentosus, Boisd. Victoria: Nelson

(Blackburn); South Australia: Kingston (Zietz).

26. Talaurinus penicillatus, Macl. Tasmania. A pair

marked, in Blackburn's handwriting, "morbillosus, Er." This identification, which is possibly from com- parison with Erichson's type, is certainly correct; unfortunately Erichson's name was preoccupied.

27. Talaurinus howitti, Macl. No locality given. A pair

from Blackburn's collection labelled "T. victoriai," a species erected on the 9 of howitti.

28. Talaurinus simplicipes, Lea. South Australia :

Kingston ( Zietz).

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29. Talaurinus maculipennis, Lea. Western Australia :

Kalgoorlie, Beverley. Talaurinus maculipennis, Lea, var. brevior, n. var.

30. Talaurinus, sp. South Australia: Ouldea; Western

Australia. Allied to T. maculipennis, but with in- termediate tibiae simple. Though I believe the species to be undescribed, I hesitate to name it, as there is a possibility of it proving to be T. carbonarius, Pasc./1) with the somewhat meagre description of which it agrees.

31. Talaurinus flaveolus, n. sp.

32. Talaurinus apicihirtus, Ferg. Queensland: Too-

woomba (Blackburn).

33. Talaurinus septentrionalis, Ferg. North Queensland :

Palmer River (French). A pair from Blackburn's collection under the name of T. maculatus, Macl.

34. Talaurinus plagiatus, n. sp.

35. Talaurinus, sp. South Australia: Adelaide (Black-

burn). A single abraded 9 resembling T. sim- plicipes, but with much finer antennal scape than in any of the group.

36. Talaurinus, sp. Western Australia: Yilgarn

(French). A single female from Blackburn's collec- tion probably belonging to Group I., but not close to any species known to me.

37. Talaurinus pulverulentus, Macl., var. prosternalis, n.

var.

38. Talaurinus squamosum, Macl. New South Wales:

Mulwala.

39. Talaurinus inconspicuus , Ferg.

40. Talaurinus strangulatus, Blackb. Central Australia:

Oodnadatta (co-type). An obscure species which I cannot refer with any certainty to any of my groups ; probably it is most nearly allied to the squamosus group, though its elytral structure is at variance with the members of the group. In the present state of our knowledge of this difficult section (granulati) any arrangement into groups can only be considered as provisional, and isolated species from little-known regions are best left with merely an indication of their apparent affinities.

41. Talaurinus, sp. South Australia: Lake Callabonna

(Zietz). A single 9 resembling T. strangulatus,

(l) Not T. carbonarius. A specimen has been compared with the type of T. carbonarius by Mr. K. G. Blair, of the British Museum.

15

but with different clothing and arrangement of granules, also showing an approach to T. squamosus. I hesitate to describe on a single 9

42. Talaurinus angvlaris, Ferg. New South Wales:

Tamworth (Musson).

43. Talaurinus scapularis, Ferg. Queensland.

44. Talaurinus ambiguus, Macl. No locality.

45. Talaurinus prypnoides, Ferg. South Australia:

Mount Lofty (Tepper).

46. Talaurinus imitator, Blackb. Central Australia (co-

type).

47. Talaurinus crassiceps, Sloane, type. Central Aus-

tralia : Barrow Range. In my table of the genus this species would be associated with T. imitator in Group VI. The two species may be conveniently separated as follows :

Group VI.

d. Intrastrial granules prominent, the de- pressions reduced to transverse fur- rows T. imitator, Blackb.

dd. Intrastrial ridges not granulate, the de- pressions subquad- rate, foveiform ... T. crassiceps, Sloane

48. Talaurinus rufipes, Blackb. Central Australia:

Tempe Downs, MacDonnell Ranges.

49. Talaurinus regularis, Sloane \ The types of all these

50. Talaurinus helmsi, Sloane (species are before me,

51. Talaurinus aiqualis, Sloane [together with an ex-

52. Talaurinus solidus, Sloane / tensive series of speci-

mens from the Elder Expedition collected by Mr. R. Helms. In this connection it might be said that Mr. Sloane in describing these species had only two specimens of each sent to him, and therefore was not in a position to judge correctly of their variation. The species were separated upon differences in con- vexity, in the degree of dilatation of the elytra, in the regularity of the sculpture, and in the granules. In all these points, however, the differences are slight and often elusive, and indeed appear to be incon- stant. After careful examination of a large series I am now of the opinion that all the forms are refer- able to one variable species, though it may be advis- able to recognize some of the names as worthy of subspecific rank.

T. regularis, as the species first described, must retain its name; it is characterized by the regu- larity of its elytral sculpture, the granules on the second and fourth interstices being small and hardly larger than those on the other interstices, the number of granules on the second is only a few less than the number on the third interstice.

T. helm si was separated on account of its nar- rower form, greater convexity, and the less conical granules of the elytra. The differences are, how- ever, slight and inconstant, and I regard T. helmsi as certainly conspecific with T. regularis.

T. cequalis differs in its flatter form and in the granules on the second and fourth interstices, these are fewer in number, more elongate and more depressed; the relation of the granules on the second to those on the third interstice is about one to two. It would seem advisable, therefore, to retain the name cequalis at least for a variety. The above notes are founded on an examination and comparison of the tf types of the species. On the females it is not so easy to reach a conclu- sion, the sculpture of the elytra varies more and in all the females are more robust and convex; indeed, it is not easy to absolutely associate females with the corresponding males. The type females of T. regularis and T . aiqualis are in my own col- lection, having been retained by Mr. Sloane, so I have taken them for comparison. The types ( 9 ) of T. regularis and of T. helmsi correspond fairly closely with their respective males; the 9 type of T. wqualis, however, while of the elongate depressed form of the S ? has the elytral inter- stices much more evenly granulate, and corresponds more with a number of specimens in the Museum collection from North-west South Australia ( Wells' Expedition). The type of T. solidus is a 9 , and in size and general appearance closely resembles the 9 T. regularis; it, however, has the granules larger and fewer in number on the second and fourth interstices. I am inclined to regard the type as a large specimen of T. cequalis.

In conclusion I may say that the slight differences between T. regularis and T. cequalis are much less than exist in big series of other species, as for instance in T. bucephalus, and I think there is little to be

17

gained in maintaining them as distinct species. I may add that Mr. Sloane very kindly re-examined his types and the other specimens while on a recent visit to Sydney, and was of the opinion that the specimens were all one variable species with the pos- sible exception of the 9 type of T. cequalis, which has in addition to other slight differences a slightly different impression on the fifth ventral segment.

Hab. Western South Australia, most of the specimens labelled "Elder Expl. Expedition, May- June 24, 1891. Helms." A specimen of T. helmsi (so labelled by Mr. Sloane) is from Everard Range, one of T . cequalis is from Barrow Range, while the 9 type of T. caqualis is from Fraser Range.

53. Talaurinus typicus, Macl. New South Wales:

Goulburn.

54. Talaurinus altemans, Macl. No locality.

55. Talaurinus tumulosus, Ferg. New South Wales:

Tamworth (Musson).

56. Talaurinus caviceps, Macl. South Australia: Ardros-