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LIBRARY OF

R. D. L A C O E .

For the Promotion of Research in PALEOBOTANY and PALEOZOOLOGY

RETURN TO=

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

WASHINGTON, D. C.

fm:

THE

N' H

QUARTERLY JOURNAL

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.

EDITED BY

THE ASSISTANT-SECRETAKY OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY.

Quod si cul mortalium cordi et curse sit non tantura inventis hserere, atque iis uti, sed ad ulteriora penetrare ; atque non disputando adversarium, sed opere naturam vincere ; denique non belle et probabiliter opinari, sed certo et ostensive scire ; tales, tanquam veri scientiarum filii, nobis (si videbitur) se adjungant. Novum Organum, Prafatio.

VOLUME THE TWENTY-EIGP^'^ ^^ '

1872. _ . _

2%a^4

^■iumnif''"^^

PART THE FIRST. PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY.

LONDON : _

LONGMANS, GEEEN, READEE, AND DYEE.

PARIS: FRIED. KLINCKSIECK, 11 RUE DE LILLE; F. SAVY, 24 RUE HAUTEFEUILLE. LEIPZIG : T. O. WEIGEL.

SOLD ALSO AT THE APARTMENTS OF THE SOCIETY.

MDCCCLXXH.

list

OF THE

OFFICERS

OF THE

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON;

Elected February 16, 1872.

The Duke of Argyll, K.T., D.C.L.rF.R.S.

Prof. P. Martin-Duncan, M.B., F.R.S. I Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S.

Prof. John Morris. j Warington W. Smyth, Esq., M.A., F.R.S.

John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. | David Forbes, Esq., F.R.S.

Prof. D. T. Ansted, M.A., F.R.S.

CfcaiSurEr.

J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq,, F.R.S.

(g@y5^©QLo

Prof. D. T. Ansted, M.A., F.R.S.

The Duke of Argyll, K.T., D.C.L., F.R.S.

W. Carruthers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S.

W. Boyd Dawkins, Esq., M.A., F.R.S.

P. Martin-Duncan, M.B. Lond., F.R.S.

R. Etheridge, Esq., F.R.S.

John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A.

James Fergusson, Esq., F.R.S.

J. Wickham Flower, Esq.

David Forbes, Esq., F.R.S.

Captain Douglas Galton, C.B., F.R.S.

Rev. John Gunn, M.A.

J. Whitaker Hulke, Esq., F.R.S.

J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq., F.R.S. &L.S.

Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., D.C.L., F.R.S.

C. J. A. Meyer, Esq.

Prof. John Morris.

Joseph Prestwich, Esq., F.R.S.

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S.

R. H. Scott, Esq., M.A., F.R.S.

Prof. Tennant, F.C.S.

Warington W. Smyth, Esq., M.A., F.R.S.

Henry Woodward, Esq., F.Z.S.

^iSsiigtants^ecwtarj), ilifirarian, anU Curator.

W. S, Dallas, Esq., F.L.S.

Cln-fe.

Mr. W. W. Leighton.

Htftrarj) HiSsit^tant.

Mr. W. Rupert Jones.

TABLE OP CONTENTS.

PAET I.— ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

Page

Blake, Rev. J. F. On tlie Infralias in Yorkshire , 132

Bleasdell, Rev. W. On Modern Glacial Action in Canada 392

BtJSK, Geokge, Esq. On the Animal-remains found by Colonel Lane Fox in the High- and Low-Terrace Gravels at Acton and Turnham Green. (With a Plate.) 466

Carbuthebs, W. Esq. Notes on Fossil Plants from Queensland,

Australia. (With 2 Plates.) 350

Daintbee, R. Esq. Notes on the Geology of the Colony of Queens- land. With an Appendix, containing descriptions of the Fossils, by R. Etheridge, Esq., and W. Carruthers, Esq. (With 19 Plates.) 271

Dakyns, J. R,, Esq. On the Glacial Phenomena of the Yorkshire

Uplands 382

Uawkins, W. Boyd, Esq. On the Cervidae of the Forest-bed of

Norfolk and Suffolk 405

. The Classification of the Pleistocene strata of Britain and

the Continent by means of the Mammalia 410

Dttncan, Prof. P. M. On Trochocyatlms anglims, a new Species of

Madreporaria, from the Red Crag. (With a Plate.) 447

Egebton, Sir P. be M. Gbey. On Prognathodus Giintheri, Egerton, a new Genus of Fossil Fish from the Lias of Lyme Regis. (With a Plate.) 233

. On two specimens of Ischyodus from the Lias of Lyme

Regis. [Title only.] 237

Ethebidge, R., Esq. Appendix to Mr. Maw's Paper on the Geology of Morocco, being a Description of a new Genus of Fossil Scu- telloid Echinoderm from Saffe, N, Africa 97

iv TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Page

Etheridge, E,., Esq, Description of tlie Palaeozoic and Mesozoic

Fossils of Queensland. (With 13 Plates.) 317

Fisher, Rev. 0. On the Phosphatic Nodules of the Cretaceous

Rock of Cambridgeshire. [Abstract.] 396

Fox, Colonel A. Lane. On the Discovery of Palaeolithic Imple- ments in association with Elephas primigenius in the Gravels of the Thames Valley at Acton ' .449

Gaiidry, Prof. Albert. On the Mammalia of the Drift of Paris

and its Outskirts. [Abstract.] 491

HIeer, Prof. Oswald. On the Carboniferous Flora of Bear Island . 161

On Cyclostigma, Lepidodetidron, and Knorria, fi-oni Kil-

torkan. (With a Plate.) 169

Henderson, Dr. G. Notes on Sand-pits, Mud-discharges, and

Brine-pits met with during the Yarkand Expedition of 1870 . . 402

Hicks, Henry, Esq. On some undescribed Fossils from the Me-

nevian group of Wales, (With 3 Plates.) i ... .41, 173

HtTLKE, J. W., Esq. Note on some Ichthyosam-ian Remains from Kimmeridge Bay, Dorset, (With a Plate.) 34

. Appendix to a " Note on a new and undescribed Wealden

Vertebra," read 9th February, 1870, and published in the Quarterly Journal for August in the same year 36

Jones, Prof. T, Rupert. Description of Specimens sent by Mr, Stow , 17

, Notes on some Fossils from the Devonian Rocks of the

Witzenberg Flats, Cape Colony 28

. On some Bivalve Entomostraea from the Lias (" Infralias ")

of Yorkshire 146

. Note on the Entomostraea from the Cambrian Rocks of

St. David's 183

and W. Kitchen Parker, Esq, On the Foraminifera of

the Family Rotalinse ( Carpenter) formd in the Cretaceous For- mations ; with Notes on their Tertiary and Recent Representa- tives 103

Login, T., Esq. Memoranda on the most recent Geological Changes of the Rivers and Plains of Northern India, founded on accurate . Surveys and the Artesian- well Boring at tlmbaUa, to show the practical application of Mr. Login's theory of the abrading and transporting power of water to effect such changes 186

TABLE OF CONTENTS. v

Page

Mackintosh, D., Esq. On a Sea-coast Section of Boulder-clay in

Cheshire 388

Mallet, R., Esq., and Dr. Oldhajm. Notice of some of the Secon- dary Effects of the Earthquake of 10th January, 1869, in Cachar 255

Maw, George, Esq. Notes on the Geology of the Plain of Morocco

and the Great Atlas. (With a Plate.) 85

Meyek, C. J. A., Esq. On the Wealden as a Fluvio-lacustrine For- mation, and on the Relation of the so-called " Punfield Forma- tion " to the Wealden and Neocomian. 243

Nicholson, Dr. H. Alleyne. Migrations of the Graptolites .... 217

NicOL, Prof. James. How the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy were

formed 237

NoRDENSKioLD, Prof. A. E. Remarks on the Greenland Meteorites 44

Oldham, Dr., and R. Mallet, Esq. Notice of some of the Secon- dary Effects of the Earthquake of 10th January, 1869, in Cachar 255

Oeueta, M. D. M. d'. Further Notes on the Geology of the Neigh- bourhood of Malaga 148, 492

Parker, W. Kitchen, Esq., and Prof T. Rupert Jones. On the Foraminifera of the family Rotalinse (^Carpenter) found in the Cretaceous Formations ; with Notes on their Tertiary and Re- cent Representatives 103

Prestwich, Joseph, Esq. On the presence of a Raised Beach on Portsdown Hill, near Portsmouth, and on the occurrence of a Flint Implement on a high level at Downton 38

Ramsay, Prof. A. C. On the River-coui-ses of England and Wales 148

Rattray, Dr. A. On the Geology of Fernando Noronha 31

Shaw, Dr. John. On the Geology of the Diamond-fields of South

Africa 21

SoLLAS, W. J., Esq. Some Observations on the Upper Greensand

Formation of Cambridge 397

Stephen, G. Milner, Esq. Letter on the discovery of Gold in

New Caledonia, and of Tin in New South Wales 42

Stow, G. W., Esq. On the Diamond-gravels of the Vaal River,

South Africa. (With a Plate.) 3

Tiddemann, R. H., Esq. On the Evidence for the Ice-sheet in North Lancashire and adjacent parts of Yorkshire and West- moreland. (With a Plate.) 471

Whitnell, S. J., Esq. Notes on Atolls, orLagoon Islands [Abstract.] 381

vi TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Page

Woodward, Henry, Esq. Furtlier Remarks on tlie Relationsliip of the Xiphosura to the Eurypterida and to the Trilobita and Arachnida 46

Wyke, C. L., Esq, Letter on Aerolites from Greenland 1

Annual Report i

Anniversary Address , xxix

List of Foreign Members jXviii

List of Foreign Correspondents xix

List of Wollaston Medallists xx

Donations to the Library (with Bibliography) .... x, 65, 201, 361, 495

LIST OF THE FOSSILS FIGURED AND DESCRIBED IN THIS VOLUME.

[In this list, those fossils the names of which are printed in Eoman type have been previously described.]

Name of Species.

Formation.

Locality.

Page.

Plants.

Cardiocarpum australe. PI. xxvii. Cyclopteris cuneata. PL xxvii. f. Cyclostigma kiltorkense. PI. iv. f.

minutum. PI. iv. f. 2, 3.

Knorria acicularis. PL iv. f. 6

Lepidodendron nothum. PL xxvi

veltheimianum. PL iv. f, 1.,

Pecopteris odontopteroides. PI

. xxviL f. 2, 3

Stenopteris elongata. PL xxvii. f. TcBniopteris Daintreei. PL xxvii.

f.4 5...

4,5

;.}

Oolite?

Oolite?

Carboniferous ? Carboniferous ? Carboniferous ?

Devonian

Carboniferous ?

Oolite?

Oolite?

Oolite?

Queensland . . Queensland . .

Kiltorkan

Kiltorkan

Tallowbridge Queensland . . Tallowbridge

Queensland ..

Queensland . . Queensland . .

356 355 169 169 170 353 171

355

355 355

Solenastraea Prestwichi. PL xxviii.

f. 5-8

Trochocyathus anglicus. PL xxviii.

f. ]-4

CCELENTERATA.

( Anthozoa.)

Red Crag Isuffolk.

Red Crag Suffolk.

449

447

E CHINODERMATA.

Protocystites menevensis. PL v. f. 19|Cambrian ISt. David's ...I 180

Rotuloidea fimbriata ..|Miocene ? | Morocco | 98

oora ? laxa. Fenestella fossula.

PL XXV. f. 2 PL XXV. f. 1

MOLLUSCA.

{Polyzoa.)

Devonian Queensland

332

Name of Species.

Formation.

Locality. Page.

MoLLuscA {continued).

{Brachiopoda.)

Chonetes cracowensis. PI. xviii. f. 2 Productus Clarkei. PI. xvii. f. 2...

cora. PI. XV. f. 1,2

longispitius. PI. xviii. f . 9 ...

or Stroplialosia, sp. PI. xviii.

f. 4

Spirifera bisulcata, var. acuta. PI.

xvi. f. 1

, sp. (allied to bisulcata). PI.

xvii. f. 4

convoluta ? PI. xvii. f. 3

dubia. Fl. xvi. f. 6 ,

striata. PI. xvii. f. 5 ]

, sp. (allied to striata). PI. xviii. ^

f. 8 j

undifera, var. undulata. PI.

XV. f. 4 & PI. xvi. f. 3-5

vespertilio. PI. xvi. f. 2

Streptorhynchus Davidsoni. PI. xvii, "1

f-1 f

Strophomena rhomboidalis, var.

analoga. PI. xv. f . 3 & PI. xvi. f.

6,7

rhomboidalis, var. analoga.

PI. xviii. f. 1

Carboniferous , Devonian ...

Carboniferous . Devonian

Carboniferous ,

Devonian

Carboniferous .

Devonian

Carboniferous .

Devonian

Carboniferous .

>• Queensland ,

336 334 328 333

334 329

335 335 330

334

336

330 329

333 331 333

{Lamellibranchiata.)

Avicula alata. PI. xx. f. 8

hughendenensis. PI. xxv. f. 3

Aviculopecten 7 imbricatus. PI. xiv.

f. 2

. ? limmformis. PI. xiv. f . 1 ... (

multiradiatus. PI. xiii. f. 1... J

Cardium profundum

Crenatula ? yiblosa. PI. xix. f . 3 "1

Cucullcea costata. PI. xx. f. 2 I

robusta. PI. xx. f . 1 (

Cyprina expansa. PI. xix. f. 1 ...J Edmondia concentrica. PI. xiii. f . 2 1

obovata. PI. xiii. f. 3 J

Homomya, sp. PI. xxv. f. 5 ,

Inoceramus marathonensis. PI. xxii.

f. 1

multiplicatus, var. elongatus.

PI. xxii. f. 2

pernoides. PI. xxii. f . 3 '

sp. (allied to problematicus)

PI. xxii. f. 4

Leda elongata. PI. xx. f. 5

Myacites, sp. PI. xxv. f . 7

Cretaceous

Devonian..

Lias

Cretaceous

Devonian. Oolite ....

Cretaceous

Oolite

}- Queensland ...

Yorkshire

Queensland ... ^

342 346

327 326 327 J43 339 340 340 338 328 328 347

343

343 343

344 341 348

Name of Species.

Formation.

Locality.

Paa;e.

MoLLUscA (continued). Lamellibranchiata {continued).

Nucula gigantea. PI. xx. f. 4 . . quadrata. PI. xix. f . 5 &

XX. f. 3

Panopsea plicata, var. acuta.

xxi. f. 3

sulcata. PI. xxi. t, 2

Pholadomya, sp. PI. xxv. f. 6 Tancredia .' sp. PI. xxv. f. 8 .. Tellina mariceburiensis. PL xx.

sp. PI. XX. f. 7

Trigonia nasuta. PL xix. f. 2 .. Genus.' PI. xix. f. 4

p.. -■\

.... I

....J

Cretaceous

Oolite

Cretaceous

}■ Queensland ...■{

341

341

342 342 347 348 341 341 339 339

(Pteropoda.)

Cyrtotheca hamula. PI. vii. f. 14. Stenotheca cornucopia. PI. vii. f. 12,

13

Theca penultima. PI. vii. f. 15, 16 stiletto. PL viL f. 18, 19

Cambrian.

St. David's

179

180 180 180

{Gasteropoda.)

Ceritkium transversum ,

Murchisonia carinata. PL xviii. f. 5

Natica lineaia. PL xxi. f. 1

Naticopsis ? harpceformis. PL xviii.

f. 6

Pkurotomaria carinata, PL xv. f. 6 Cliftoni. PI. xxv. f. 4

Lias

Carboniferous , Cretaceous ...

1 Carboniferous ,

[Devonian.

Oolite ....

rotunda. PL xviii. f. 3 Carboniferous...^

Yorkshire

Queensland ...*

142

337 342

337

331

347 336

( Cephalopoda.)

Ammonites Beudanti, var, Mitchelli. ^

Pi. xxiii

Daintreei, PI. xxiv >

hughendenensis. PL xxv. f. 3

Sutherlandi. PI. xxi. f. 4 ... j

Cretaceous

Queensland ,

345 346 346 345

Annulosa.

{Crustacea.)

Agnostus BarrandeL PI. v. f. 5, 6. . . "^

davidis. PL v. f. 2-4

Eskriggei. PL v. f. 7

scarabaeoides. PI. v. f. 8

scutalis. PI. V. f. 9-14 }

Anopolenus impar. PL vii. f. 1-7. .

Salteri. PI. vii. f. 8-1 1

Arionellus longicephalus. PL v f. 20-26 /

Cambrian.

St. David's

176 174 175 175

175 179 179

176

Name of Species.

Formation.

Locality.

Annulosa {continued). Crustacea {continued).

y. PI. vi. f. r...] ata. PI. vi.f. 11 \ 1. vi. f. 12 J

Bairdia ? ellipsoidea Carausia menevensis. Conocoryphe coronata,

Homfrayi. PI

Cy there Blakei

Moorei

Terquemiana

Entomis buprestis. PI Erinnys venulosa. PI. vi Griffithides dubius. PI. xviii. f . 7 .. Holocejihalina inflata. PI. vi. f. 8-10 1 Leper ditia Hicksii. PI. v. f. 16 ... j- Tiilobite, Larval (?). PI. v. f. 17, 18 J

V. f. 15 ...1 i. f. 1-6 ...J

Lias

Cambrian.

Lias

Cambrian

Carboniferous

Cambrian......

Yorkshire ......

St. David's

Yorkshire \

t

St. David's |

Queensland

St. David's . . .

146 17$ 178 178 146 146 147 183 177 338 178 183 184

Vertebrata.

{Pisces.) Prognathodus Guntheri. PI. viii jLias ILyme Regis ..I 233

{Reptilia.) Ichthyosaurus, sp. PL ii |KimmeridgeC]aylKimmeridge | 34

Cervus carnutorum

verticornis

Hippopotamus major. PI. xxix.

{Mammalia.)

Forest-bed [Norfolk ..

Forest-bed Norfolk ..

Pleistocene I Middlesex

409 407 467

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.

Plate Page

-r J Map op part of the Vaal Eiver, to illustrate Mr. G. W. I Stow's paper on the Diamond-gravels of the Vaal Eiver ... 3

jj r Teeth op Ichthyosaurus, to illustrate Mr. Hulke's note on

\ some Ichthyosaurian Eemains from Kimmeridge 34

TTT /Sections to illustrate Mr. Maw's notes on the Geology of ■(_ the Plain of Morocco and the Great Atlas 8.5

jY f Cyclostigma, Lepidodendron, and Knorria, prom Kiltor-

\ KAN, to illustrate Prof. Heer's paper on that subject 169

V 1 Yj' I Menevian Fossils, to illustrate M. Hicks s Description of

Yjj' I New FossUs from the Menevian Group 173

YjTT / Prognathodus GiJNTHERi, to illustrate Sir P. de M. Grey

' |_ Egerton's description of that Fish 233

j^ J Geological Map op Queensland, to illustrate Mr. Daintree's 1 paper on the Geology of that Colony 271

X. "1 Sections op Diorites, Trachytes, Porpiiyrites, and Dole- XI. [ rites, to illustrate Mr. Daintree's paper on the Geology of XII. J Queensland 271

XIII. ^

XIV.

XV.

XVI.

XVII.

XVIII.

XIX.

XX.

XXI.

XXII.

XXIII.

XXIV.

XXV.;

XXVI. 1 Fossil Plants prom Queensland, to illustrate Mr. Carruthers's XXVII.J Notes 350

^ r TrOCHOCYATHUS ANGLICUS and SOLENASTRyEA PrESTWICHI, tO

AAVIii. I illustrate Prof. Duncan's descriptions of those Corals 447

[ Metatarsals op Hippopotamus major, to illustrate Mr. XXIX. \ Busk's notes on animal-remains found by Colonel Lane Fox

[ at Acton and Turnham Green 465

(Map, showing the Glaciation op North Lancashire and adjacent parts, to illustrate Mr. Tiddeman's paper on the Evidence for the Ice-sheet in that district 471

Fossils prom Queensland, to illustrate Mr. Etheridge's de- *■ scriptions 317

ERRATA ET CORRIGENDA.

Page 11, footnote, line 2 from bottom, /or "was" read "were." 114, line 9 from bottom, before " fig. 34," insert "PI. 1." 114, lines 8 and 7 from bottom, transpose " Berthelotiana " and

" liirsuta." 118, after line 26, insert " Calcarina tetraedra {Gilmb.) " 118, line 27, for " Eottaline " read " Rotaline." 123, insert * in 13th column opposite " Calcarina." 125, line 22, insert " fossile " before " Foraminiferen." 127, line 8 from bottom, for " cristellaroides " read " cristellarioides." 180, line 9 from bottom, /or " Tablse " read " Tables." 245, line 24, before " some " insert " in." 272, right hand of lower figure for " c " read " d." 318, line 11, before " England " insert "in." 356, line 13, for "linea" read "linear," and for " Trffiniopteroid "

read ■' Tseniopteroid." 382, line 29, for " a " read " area."

396, line 10 from bottom, for " chlorite " read " glauconite." 439, line 21, for " Scotldan " read " Scotland." 496j line 23, for " Northern " read " Northam."

THE

QUARTERLY JOURNAL

OP

THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.

PROCEEDINGS

THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY.

NOVEMBEE 8, 1871.

Henry Hicks, Esq., M.E.C.S., of Heriot House, Hendon, N.W., was elected a Eellow, Dr. Franz Hitter von Hauer, of "Vienna, a Foreign Member, and M. Henri Coquand, of Marseilles, a Foreign Correspondent of the Society.

The following communications were read :

1. The following letter from the British Embassy at Copenhagen, transmitted by Earl Granville :

Copenhagen, Oct. 10, 1871.

My Lord, Two Swedish- Government vessels have lately visited this port, having on board a scientific commission which has just returned from an expedition to the coast of Greenland. They brought with them a number of aerolites which had been found on the coast upon the surface of the ground. These aerolites are all of the iron class, and consist of masses of what is called meteoric iron, of various sizes, the largest weighing no less than 25 tons.

As these curiosities were discovered in Greenland, one of them, the second in size, has been presented by the discoverers to the Danish Government, and has been placed in the arsenal in this city.

I have, &c. (Signed) Charles Lennox Wxke.

Discussion.

Mr. David Forbes having recently returned from Stockholm, where he had the opportunity of examining these remarkable masses

VOL. XXVIII. PART I. B

2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [NoV. 8,

of native iron, took the opportunity of stating that they had been first discovered last year by the Swedish arctic expedition, which brought back several blocks of considerable size, which had been found on the coast of Greenland. The expedition of this year, how- ever, has just succeeded in bringing back more than twenty addi- tional specimens, amongst which two were of enormous size. The largest, weighing more than 49,000 Swedish pounds, or about 21 tons English, with a maximum sectional area of about 42 square feet, is now placed in the hall of the Eoyal Academy of Stockholm ; whilst, as a comiDliment to Denmark, on whose territory they were found, the second largest, weighing 20,000 lbs., or about 9 tons, has been presented to the Museum of Copenhagen.

Several of these specimens have been submitted to chemical ana- lysis, which proved them to contain nearly 5 per cent, of nickel, with from 1 to 2 per cent, of carbon, and to be quite identical, in chemical composition, with many aerohtes of known meteoric origin. When polished and etched by acids, the surface of these masses of metallic iron shows the peculiar figures or markings usually considered characteristic of native iron of meteoric origin.

The masses themselves were discovered lying loose on the shore, but immediately resting upon basaltic rocks (probably of Miocene age), in which they appeared to have originally been imbedded ; and not only have fragments of similar iron been met' with in the basalt, but the basalt itself, upon being examined, is found to contain minute particles of metallic iron, identical in chemical composition with that of the large masses themselves, whilst some of the masses of native iron are observed to enclose fragments of the basalt.

As the chemical composition and mineralogical character of these masses of native iron are quite diff'erent from those of any iron of terrestrial origin, and altogether identical with those of undoubted meteoric iron. Professor Kordenskjold regards them as aerolites, and accounts for their occurrence in the basalt by supposing that they proceeded from a shower of meteorites which had fallen down and buried themselves in the molten basalt during an eruption in the Miocene period.

Notwithstanding that these masses of metallic iron were found lying on the shore between the ebb and flow of tide, it has been found, upon their removal to Stockholm, that they perish with ex- traordinary rapidity, breaking up rapidly and falhng to a fine powder. Attempts to preserve them by covering them with a coating of varnish have as yet proved unsuccessful ; and it is actually proposed to preserve them from destruction by keeping them in a tank of alcohol.

Mr. Maskelyne stated that the British Museum already possessed a specimen of this native iron, and accounted for its rapid destruc- tion on exposure by the absorption of chlorine from terrestrial sources, which brought about the formation of ferrous chloride. This was particularly marked in the case of the great Melbourne meteorite in the British Museum. He had succeeded in protecting this, as well as the Greenland sj)ecimen, by coating them externally,

1871.] STOW TAAL-EIVER DIAM:OJSrD-GRA.VELS. 3

after previously heating them gently, with a varnish made of shellac dissolved in nearly absolute alcohol. He considered it probable that a meteoric mass falling with immense velocity might so shatter itself as to cause some of its fragments to enclose fragments of basalt, and even to impregnate the neighbouring mass of basalt with minute particles of the metallic iron ; but he considered the question of meteoric origin could only be decided by examining the same mass of basalt at some greater distance from the stones themselves, so as to prove whether the presence of such metallic iron was actually characteristic of the entire mass of the rock.

Prof. Ramsat referred to the general nature of meteorites and to their mineral relationship to the planetary bodies, and remarked that, supposing the earth to have in part an elementary metallic core, erujjtive igneous matter might occasionally bring native iron to the surface.

Mr. Daiwtrhe mentioned that he had been present at the ex- humation of the Melbourne meteorite, and that at that time there was little or no trace of any formation of ferrous chloride, the ex- ternal crust on the meteorite being not above -^j inch in thickness.

2. On the Diamond -GRAVELS of the Vaal Eiver, Sotjth Africa. By George W. Stow, Esq., of Queenstown, Cape Colony.

(Communicated, with Notes and Descriptions of the Specimens, by Prof T. Rupert Jones, F.Gr.S.*)

[With a Map, PL I.]

Contents.

Geographical Features. (Map, Ph I.)

Occurrence and geological place of the Diamonds.

Section I. Natal Kopje ; Cawood's Hope ; Gong-gong: fig. 1.

Section II. The deposits at Klip Drift and Pniel.

Section III. Hebron and Diamondia : figs. 2, and 3.

Du Toit's Pan.

Inferences.

Place of origin of the Drifts : fig. 4.

Eocks and fossils of the Upper Drainage-area.

Origin of the Gravels.

Postscript.

Appendix. Description of the Specimens, by Prof. T. R. Jones, F.G.S.

Geographical features. In travelling from the colony to the dia- mond-fields on the banks of the Vaal, the last shales similar to those of the Great Stormberg basin are met with at a short distance from

* In his letter of July 6th, 1871, requesting that I would name the specimens which he sent with this paper, Mr. Stow alludes to my paper " On the Dia- mond Fields of South Africa" in the ' Geological Magazine' for February 1871, as instigating him to collect exact information and verified specimens from trust- worthy observers, with whom he was in frequent communication, without treating of any previously published accounts of the district. How far in all essential points the actual sections now brought forward by Mr. Stow substantiate the

b2

4 PROCEEDINGS OE THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [NoV, 8,

the north bank of the Orange Eiver, between Bethnlie and Jagcr s Eontein. The sandstones continue beyond the shales (just as we find them on the southern or Great- Winterberg boundary of the same basin), and are visible in the ridges in the direction of Albania, to the north, and of Hopetowu, to the south of the same river.

At a drift (ford) on the Rcit Eiver, a short distance beyond Jager's Fontein, a mass of rock, which has been termed " clay-slate," makes its appearance. It is of a dark blue slate-colour, and is said to break with a slat}^ fracture. It is possible that this may be a schist more ancient and indurated than the shales of the Stormberg for- mation. Beyond this the greater part of the country is covered with calcareous tufa, on which in some places is a reddish sandy soil, about 2 feet thick. The ground is traversed by numerous dykes, and by other slight ridges which seem to be composed of metamor- phic rocks. On a near approach to the Yaal River the direction of these ridges can be easily traced ; and they all appear to trend E.S.E.-W.jN^.W. In many places quartz-reefs run parallel with the dykes, their thickness varying from a few inches to 15 or 16 feet. No satisfactory conclusion, however, can be arrived at with regard to the basement rocks which intervene between Jager's Fonteiu and Pniel, except that none equivalent to those met with in the upper portion of the Stormberg-basin are to be found there. This part of the country, therefore, in all probability formed a portion of the northern or north-eastern boundary of the great sandstone and shale- system of the Stormberg. (See the paper by Mr. Stow, read before the Geol. Soc. Dec. 7, 1870, Q. J. G. S. vol. xxvii. p. 523.)

The immense extent of the diamond-deposits seems to be most clearly proved by the widely separated localities in which they have been found (see Map, PL I.). Taking Pniel as a central point, we find that they have been discovered (July 1871) not onl}'- at Jager's Fontein, a place nearly 96 miles on the southern side of the Vaal, but also at Mamusa, 75 miles beyond it. At this latter place a diamond upwards of 70 carats in weight was picked up on the sur- face. How much further these deposits may extend in the same direction is not known ; but even this distance gives a breadth of 171 miles. The diamond-bearing country already ascertained stretches down the Yaal River for a distance of 110 miles, to a spot considerably below its junction with the Nu Gariep, or Orange River ; whilst, above Pniel, diamonds have been found at a considerable number of places as far as Bloemhof, 102 miles further up the stream ; and the last reports (July 1871) state that diamonds have been discovered at least 100 miles nearer the sources of the river, a dis- tance of quite 312 miles from the most southern point previously mentioned.

hypothesis advanced in the ' Greological Magazine,' will be found on comparing these papers. I must add that a great store of useful information about the diamond and the geology of diamond-fields in Australia, India, Brazil, and else- where, has been brought together by the Eev. W. B. Clark, M.A., F.G.S., Vice- President of the Eoyal Society of New South Wales, in liis Anniversarv Address to that body on May^25, 1870 (8vo, Sydney, 1871).— T. E. J.

1S71.] STOW TAAL-EIVER DIAMOND-GEAVELS. 5

In the accompanying Map (PI. I.), which shows the Vaal Eiver from the Plaatberg to its junction with the Eeit River, all the localities where tlie diggers are most thickly congregated are in- dicated.

My friend Mr J. Graham, who has furnished me with the results of some observations he made on the level of the river, found by the aneroid that its fall was exceedingly small. Between Hebron and Klip Drift, a distance, along the course of the river, of more than 25 miles, it was only 22 feet. The stream is divided into long level reaches ; and these in most cases are joined by a succession of small rapids. Three of those below Pniel are marked as Kos. 1, 2, and 3, on the map. The sinuosities of the river are very remarkable.

Whatever may have been the agency that occasioned the vast accumulations of gravel and boulders that we have to treat of, it must have been something more powerful than a current like that of the present Vaal.

The country to the south of the river consists of immense gently undulating flats, with scarcely any eminences worthy of being called hills. South of the Plaatberg the onh'^ elevation forming a range is between Bult-Fontein and Robinson's ; and this only rises to a height of 400 or 500 feet.

A large portion of the country to the south of the Vaal is covered, as has been mentioned, with calcareous tufa, hidden in many places by a thin coating of light sandy soil, just sufficient to support a somewhat scanty herbage. Local depressions in the fiats are very common ; and most of these have no outlets to any lower level, al- though the drainage of a large extent of land slopes from ever}- side towards them. In colonial phraseology they are styled " Braak- Pans." The origin of the depressions has yet to be explained ; but the water of the "pans" appears to be due to its accumulation after heavy rains in these hollows. This is again rapidly evaporated in dry seasons, and leaves the soil impregnated with the saline particles dissolved and carried down thither from the higher slopes by the rain-water. The water, from the peculiar formation of the country just alluded to, has no other means of escape ; thus the constant ad- dition during a long course of ages has had such a sterilizing effect that the growth of all vegetation in the central portion, or " pan," is prevented by the extreme brackishness of the soil. Some of these " pans " are of large size from 2 to 3 miles in length. Du Toit's Pan is one of this description. Between Jacobsdal and the Camp- bell-grounds there are two such salt-pans. About twelve years ago one of these ceased yielding salt, and continued in the same state for ten years ; but during the last two years it has recommenced depo- siting a large quantity of saline matter.

Occurrence and geological place of the Diamonds. Diamonds, up to the present time, have been found principally :

1st. In an unstratified gravelly drift, containing immense num- bers of huge boulders, with a red, clayey, ferruginous or ochreous matrix. Pniel is an example of this kind.

2nd. Unstratified gravel, with boulders most irregularly inter-

6 PJaOCEBDIJSTGS OP THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. [I^OV. 8,

spersed throughout, bound together with a calcareous cement ; as is the case at Hebron and Diamondia (figs. 1 & 2, c).

These gravels, wherever found, contain large quantities of small fragments of fossil wood.

3rd. Irregularly stratifiedgravelly clays of various colours. Some of these also contain irregular patches of boulders. Examples of these are met with at Hebron and Diamondia (fig. 2).

4th. A pebbly drift, without large bonlders, and bound together by a red ferruginous and rather clayey matrix. This is the case at Jager's Fontein.

5th. A gravelly sand of difi'erent shades of colour; the upper generally white, with irregularly interspersed boulders. This de- posit is rather contorted in some places, and is found at a much lower level than the others.

Section I. 1 have not been able to procure many sections. One of them (fig. 1) comprises Natal Kopje, Cawood's Hope, and Gong- Gong ; from all of which places many diamonds have been procured.

Natal Kopje. On the summit of Natal Kopje there is a dark blue gravelly clay, with boulders (1) ; below this is a yellowish clay, inter- mixed with calcareous tufa (2) ; and beneath this is a reddish, oehreous, gravelly clay (3). These clays are very irregular in thick- ness, altering very much in a short distance ; their total thickness varies from 2 to 4 feet. The largest diamonds (up to the present date, July 1871) have been here found within a couple of feet of the surface.

Below these beds is a great deposit of gravel {d). Its true thickness has not been ascertained ; but shafts have been sunk into it for up- wards of 30 feet without reaching the bottom ; it is probably much thicker. It contains multitudes of pebbles of the various rocks found in the diamond-deposits. The peeuhar shape, rather flat and oval, which many of them have, has caused the diggers to name them " kidney-stones ; " they are thickly packed together in some portions of the gravel.

Upon what rocks this deposit rests is not known ; but connected immediately mth it is a subterranean escarpment of a rock («) called by the diggers " rotten-stone " (" decomposed felspathic trap," Jones*), which they describe as a kind of " cone-within-cone," decomposed, rotten sandstone, breaking up in concentric layers, with hard, firm nuclei, resembling boulders. A shaft has been sunk down the face of this underground precipice for upwards of 30 feet, as shown in the section (fig. 1). Dense patches of such large pebbles as are found in the gravel seem to be massed along its front. This rock slopes ofi" towards the land side, and is there covered with gravel (e), and boulders are spread over the surface. This gravel is about 2 feet thick ; as yet no diamonds have been found in it. - Cau'oocVs Hope. Joining the Natal Kopje at rather a lower level, are two smaller kopjes, composed of a deposit similar to that found iu the Natal Kopje. At the foot of a small ravine leading from these

* " Notes on specimens from Klip Drift and Pniel, by Prof. E-upert Jones," Mining Journal, March -i, 187J, p. 190.— T. E. J.

[To face page 6.

sil bone. [This grayel jntil it is almost white ;

Y clay. f the shaft are bound

n found in Nos. 2 and 3.]

jxamined and found to contaif to the middle portions

ilay with boulders. Diamonds ;n ^hich few diamonds patches of calcareous tufi^n the surface.

fi to Hebron on the Vaal 1

QuATHLAMBA EaNGE.

ht Peak, Dordr. Kek,

'i. feet. Dordr., Queenstown Ed.,

' -^ ^ 5434 ft. 5698 feet.

lich the nearly

CC. W D. M

, r 3000 feet I above the sea.

Fig. l.Section of the Dimtiantiferous Deposits at Natal Kopje, Cawood's Hope, and Qoruf-Gong. (Distance about 2200 yards.)

Fig. 2. Section of the Diamantiferous Deposits on the hanlcs of the Vaal, from Hebron to Diamondia. (Distance- about 3000 yards.)

[To face page 6.

1. Dark blue, slate-coloured, gravelly clay, with

boulders.

2. Tellomsli clay, with patcbes of calcareoua tufa.

3. Bright red grarelly clay,

a. " I^tten - stone." [Decomposed felapathic

amygdaloid ? T. R. J.]

b. Metamorphic (?) rocks, covered with i

boulders.

;th many rorn frag-

. Eed, unstratified, clayey gravel, boulders, and containing numeroi mentfl of fossil wood.

. Unstratifled gravel, containing " kidney- stones,"

, Gravel, about 2 feet; no diamonds found,

1. Black gravelly soil, containing diamonds.

2. Reddish gravelly clay.

3. Intense red, ochreous, gravelly clay.

[No diamonds have yet been found in Nos. 2 and 3.]

4. Portion of d that has been examined and found to contain

diamonds.

5. Blue, slate -coloured, gravelly olay, with boulders. Diamonds,

6. Yellow clay, with irregular patches of calcareous tufa.

Diamond.'^.

7. Eieddish, oelu-eous, gravelly clay. Diamonds.

[Nos. 5, 6, and 7 are superimposed upon a, and the in- equalities of the surface of the latter form "pockets," in which numerous diamonds have been found. All three contain diamonds; their total thickness is from 2 to 6 feet.]

a. " Rotten-atoue." [Decomposed felspathic amygdaloid ?

b. Metamorphic (?) rocks, forming the floor of the river-valley.

c. Red gravel, unstratified, containing boulders, diamonds, fos-

sil wood, and one fragment of fossil bone. [This gravel

becomes paler on sinking into it, until it is almost white;

some portions near the centre of the shaft are bound

together by a calcareous cement.] d. Cemented gravel and boulders, similar to the middle portions

off. f Yellow I sandy gravel, with boulders, in which few diamonds a Bluish I ^^^^ ^^^^ found, except on the surface.

Fig. 4. Panoramic Sketch showing the reUiive heights from the Stormberg^ through Bloemfontein to Hebron on the Vaal River ; also of the sources of the Ky Gariep ( Vaal) and Nu Qariep (Orange) Uix

DrAAEENSBERG or QnATHLAMBA RAKOE,

Mont aux Sources, Cathkin Peak, Giant Kop, 10,000 feet. 1 0,357 feet. 9657 feet.

3000 fft't \ >Vii the sea, i

5434 ft, 5698 feet.

About 50 miles.

AA. An elevated plateau, north of the Vaal River, of which the Magalies Berg is the culminating ridge. Height nearly 7000 feet. '

1 which "Brak-pans" are formed. CO. Witte Bergen, Orange-Biver Free State. Height unknown, D. Maluti Bergen.

E. Assvogel Kop.

F. Washbank.

G. Stormberg.

1871.] STOW VAAL-EIVEB DIAMOND-GRAVELS. 7

kopjes is a dry river-bed, with a small pool (or " lagoon," as it is termed at the diamond-fields) near its centre. Along its southern bank are accumnlations of exceedingly large boulders piled up upon rocks that have been scarped in many places by the action of the current. In very high floods a portion of the water still flows through this ancient channel ; and a number of trees, such as grow along the sides of the present course of the river, still fringe its margin.

Between this and the river itself